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Table 3 Infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in the five studied ungulate species

From: Wild ungulate species differ in their contribution to the transmission of Ixodes ricinus-borne pathogens

Ungulate species Anaplasma phagocytophilum Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) Borrelia miyamotoi Babesia spp.
nP IP (95% CI) nP IP (95% CI) nP IP (95% CI) nP IP (95% CI)
Fallow deer (n = 65) 63a 0.98 (0.92–1.00) 0 0.00 0 0.00 9c 0.14 (0.06–0.23)
Moose (n = 8) 8a 1.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 5d 0.63 (0.13–0.88)
Red deer (n = 28) 28a 1.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 20e 0.71 (0.46–0.82)
Roe deer (n = 7) 7b 1.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 7f 1.00
Wild boar (n = 34) 24a 0.71 (0.50–0.82) 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00
  1. nP Number of positive animals, IP infection prevalence with 95% CI (95% CI are 95% bootstrapped, bias-corrected CI)
  2. a42 A. phagocytophilum-positive samples from fallow deer, two from moose, 20 from red deer and seven from wild boar were sequenced; all were ecotype 1
  3. bAll A. phagocytophilum-positive samples from roe deer were sequenced; all were ecotype 2
  4. cEight Babesia spp.-positive samples from fallow deer were sequenced: two B. capreoli, two B. divergens and three B. odocoilei-EU
  5. dThree Babesia spp.-positive samples from moose were sequencend: B. odocoilei-EU
  6. e16 Babesia spp. positive-samples from red deer were sequenced: six B. divergens, three B. odocoilei-EU, one B. venatorum and six B. divergens and B. venatorum
  7. fAll Babesia spp.-positive samples from roe deer were sequenced: three B. capreoli, three B. capreoli and B. venatorum and one B. capreoli, B. divergens and B. venatorum, respectively