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Table 1 Risk factors in dogs tested for Dirofilaria immitis antigen from Queensland, Australia

From: Multiple diagnostic tests demonstrate an increased risk of canine heartworm disease in northern Queensland, Australia

Risk factors Positive for D. immitis antigena Negative for D. immitis antigen Total P value Odds ratio 95% Confidence interval
Locationb     0.010   
 Southern QLD 7 123 130   1  − 
 Northern QLD 7 28 35   4.39 1.26–13.51
Sex/status     0.474   
 Male neutered 3 64 67   1  − 
 Female entire 4 25 29   3.41 0.71–16.36
 Female neutered 5 43 48   2.48 0.56–10.93
 Male entire 2 19 21   2.25 0.35–14.44
Age     0.868   
 ≤ 2 years 7 72 79   1  − 
 > 2 years 7 79 86   0.91 0.31–2.73
Source     0.299   
 Stray 10 125 135   1  − 
 Surrender 4 26 30   1.92 0.56–6.61
Total 14 151 165    
  1. aPositive and negative counts are based on visual assessment of combined results for unheated and heat-treated plasma samples
  2. bNorthern Queensland (QLD) consists of samples obtained from Cairns, Mackay, Rockhampton and Townsville; and southern QLD consists of samples from Brisbane, Sunshine Coast and Bundaberg