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Table 1 Comparison among detection methods applied in the detection of LD in sand flies that corresponds to infectious proportion of PKDL cases

From: Evaluation of molecular assays to detect Leishmania donovani in Phlebotomus argentipes fed on post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis patients

Method comparison (as percentage of infectious PKDL cases) Microscopy LD-qPCR LD-RPA
Microscopy negative pooled sand fly specimen only (slide smear DNA excluded) Positive: 40.43% 51.06%
Negative: 59.57% 48.93%
Overall positivity (95% CI) considering smear and pool sample extracted DNA   46.81% (32.11% to 61.92%) 55.32% (40.12% to 69.83%) 59.57% (44.27% to 73.63%)
Discordance and agreement among methods (McNemar test; κ-statistic with 95% CI) Microscopy p = 0.5; κ = 0.831 (0.675–0.987) p = 0.04; κ = 0.748 (0.565–0.930)
LD-qPCR p = 0.5; 0.913 (0.796—1.000)
Feasibility of operation Type of method Qualitative Qualitative/Quantitative Qualitative
Field applicability Yes No Yes
Test time acquisition Individual sample (user-dependent) Individual sample/pool (105 min) Individual sample/pool (15 min)
Detection test cost($) 2–4 30 8–9