Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Prevalence of malaria and scrub typhus co-infection in febrile patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Study site Year of study Study design Participants Age Male/female Co-infections All malaria cases Test for malaria Test for scrub typhus
Ahmad et al. [26] India 2012–2013 Retrospective observational study 233 febrile patients NS NS 19 89 NS IgM ELISA
Bal et al. [27] India 2017 Cross-sectional study 413 febrile patients  < 15 years 124:289 6 16 RDT IgM ELISA
Behera et al. [28] India 2017 Cross-sectional study 432 adult (290) and pediatric patients (142) All ages NS 4 13 Microscopy, RDT IgM ELISA, PCR
Chanyasanha et al. [29] Thailand 1994 Cross-sectional study 200 malaria-positive patients  > 15 years 173:63 119 200 NS IFA
Kotepui et al. [36] Thailand 2013–2015 Retrospective observational study 179 malaria-positive patients All ages 110:69 112 179 Microscopy RDT
Mandage et al., 2020 [37] India 2017–2018 Cross-sectional study 66 malaria-positive patients NS NS 5 66 Microscopy, RDT, PCR PCR
McGready et al. [35] Thailand 2004–2006 Cohort study 203 febrile pregnant women Adults 0:203 2 51 Microscopy PCR
Mittal et al. [38] India 2012–2013 Retrospective observational study 2547 febrile pregnant women Adults 0:2547 11 172 Microscopy, RDT IgM ELISA
Mohanty et al. [30] India 2016–2018 Retrospective observational study 240 scrub-typhus-positive patients  ≥ 18 years 131:109 6 6 Microscopy IgM ELISA
Mørch et al. [31] India 2011–2012 Cross-sectional study 1564 febrile patients  ≥ 5 years 895:632 8 268 Microscopy, RDT, PCR IgM ELISA, IFA
Patil et al. [39] India 2018–2019 Cross-sectional study 200 febrile patients  ≥ 13 years 123:77 3 3 Microscopy Weil Felix
test
Raina et al. [32] India 2016 Cohort study 1164 febrile patients  ≥ 18 years NS 2 9 Microscopy IgM ELISA
Singh et al. [33] India 2013 Retrospective observational study 1141 febrile patients  > 12 years 618:523 1 158 Microscopy, RDT IgM ELISA
Singhsilarak et al. [34] Thailand NS Retrospective observational study 194 malaria-positive patients All ages NS 29 194 Microscopy IFA
  1. ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, NS not specified, RDT rapid diagnostic test, IFA immunofluorescence assay, PCR polymerase chain reaction