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Table 5 Pathogen prevalence in the blood of dogs from six African countries

From: A community approach of pathogens and their arthropod vectors (ticks and fleas) in dogs of African Sub-Sahara

Pathogen prevalence Overall Tanzania (%) Kenya (%) Uganda (%) Nigeria (%) Ghana (%) Namibia (%)
Rural Urban P Rural Urban P Rural Urban P Rural Urban P Rural Urban P Rural Urban P
Pathogens in blood
 B. canis 0.0 0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0  
 B. rossi 3.8 0.0 1.9   12.0 3.9   8.0 6.0   3.5 3.9   0.0 1.8   0.0 0.0  
 E. chaffeensis 0.0 0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0  
 A. platys 14.1 13.6 21.2 ns 4.0 0.0   0.0 6.0   33.3 7.8 ** 27.5 29.8 ns 19.3 7.4 ns
 A. phagocytophilum 0.0 0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0  
 R. conorii 0.0 0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0  
 R. africae 0.0 0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0  
 C. burnetti 0.5 0.0 0.0   2.7 0.0   0.0 0.0   1.8 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0  
 H. canis 58.6 77.3 67.3 ns 85.3 53.9 ** 98.0 86.0 ns 56.1 25.5 ** 67.5 45.6 * 29.0 8.8 *
 E. canis 18.5 27.3 19.2 ns 13.3 19.2 ns 0.0 4.0   31.6 15.7 * 25.0 28.1 ns 22.5 19.1 ns
 D. immitisa 2.8 4.6 5.8   1.3 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   7.5 14.0 ns 0.0 0.0  
 Trypanosoma spp.a 0.2 0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   1.8 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0  
 Individuals (N) 601 44 52   75 26   50 50   57 51   40 57   31 68  
 Shannon index   1.0 1.1 ns 1.0 0.8 ns 0.3 0.6 ns 1.3 1.2 ** 1.2 1.4 ns 1.1 1.0 ns
Sero-positive
  Anaplasma spp. 13.1 20.5 21.2 ns 9.7 7.7   4.0 24.0 ** 4.0 20.5 *** 0.0 3.9   23.3 7.9 **
  Borrelia spp. 0.2 0.0 0.0   1.4 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0  
  Ehrlichia spp. 26.3 31.8 28.9 ns 22.2 15.4 ns 10.0 4.0 ns 54.0 32.0 * 35.0 21.2 ns 40.0 25.4 ns
  Heartwormb 0.3 0.0 0.0   0.0 3.9   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 1.9   0.0 0.0  
  Individuals (N) 579 44 52   72 26   50 50   50 50   40 52   30 63  
  1. DNA-based (qPCR) pathogen prevalence in the blood of dogs from urban and rural areas of 6 African countries. Prevalence of 2 additional pathogens—not transmitted by fleas or ticks (D. immitis and Trypanosoma spp.)—are reported as well. In addition, sero-prevalence of four pathogen genera are given, for which the IDEXX test was used. For statistical outcomes on pairwise macro-geographic differences, see Fig. 4. As a measure of species diversity, a Shannon index has been provided
  2. ***P < 0.001, **P < 0.01, *P < 0.05, ns (not-significant) P > 0.05
  3. aNon-tick-or flea-borne pathogens
  4. bPositive in IDEXX test, but all negative in qPCR’s