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Table 1 Species of Babesia reported in Dermacentor spp.

From: The specificity of Babesia-tick vector interactions: recent advances and pitfalls in molecular and field studies

Country Reference Dermacentor species (n) Babesia spp. prevalence Species of Babesia, number of isolates, prevalence (%) Species identification method
Austria Hodžić et al. [155] Dermacentor reticulatus (128) 10% Babesia canis, 9 (7%) PCR sequencing
     Babesia vulpes, 4 (3%)  
Austria Leschnik et al. [161] D. reticulatusa (12) 16.7% B. canis, 2 (16.7%) PCR sequencing
Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, UK Sprong et al. [162] D. reticulatus (1741) 0.9% B. canis, 16 (0.9%) PCR sequencing
Belgium, the Netherlands Jongejan et al. [139] D. reticulatus (855) 1.9% B. canis, 14 (1.6%) PCR sequencing
     Babesia caballi, 2 (0.2%)  
France Bonnet et al. [140] Dermacentor marginatus (377) 0.6% Babesia bovis, 1 (0.3%) PCR-RLB for selected Babesia species
     Babesia/Theileria spp., 1 (0.3%)  
   D. reticulatus (74) 0% -  
Germany Galfsky et al. [50] D. reticulatus (30) 3.3% Babesia capreoli, 1 (3.3%) PCR sequencing
Germany Silaghi et al. [163] D. reticulatus (301) 0.3% B. canis, 1 (0.3%) PCR sequencing
Hungary Hornok et al. [164] D. reticulatus (413) 8.2% B. canis, 34 (8.2%) PCR sequencing
Lithuania and Latvia Radzijevskaja et al. [67] D. reticulatus (2440) 1.3% B. canis, 17 PCR sequencing
     Babesia venatorum, 1  
Poland Bajer et al. [131] D. reticulatus (29) 3.4% B. canis, 1 (3.4%) PCR sequencing
Poland Mierzejewska et al. [137] D. reticulatus (2585) 4.2% (108) B. canis, 57 PCR sequencing
     Babesia microti Munich, 1  
Poland Wojcik-Fatla et al. [165] D. reticulatus (468) 4.5% B. microti Munich, 21 (4.5%) PCR sequencing
Poland Wojcik-Fatla et al. [74] D. reticulatus (582) 2.7% B. microti, 12 (2.1%) PCR sequencing
     B. canis, 4 (0.7%)  
Romania Corduneanu et al. [166] D. reticulatus (75 in 15 pools) 8% MIR B. canis, 6 (8% MIR) PCR sequencing
Russia Rar et al. [167] D. reticulatus (81) 3.6% B. canis, 3 (3.6%) PCR sequencing
Slovakia Majláthová et al. [168] D. reticulatus (326) 36% B. canis, 5 PCR sequencing
Slovakia Svehlová et al. [80] D. reticulatus (600) 1.8% B. canis, 11 (1.8%) PCR sequencing
Slovenia Duh et al. [169] D. reticulatus (100) 1% B. canis, 1 (1%) PCR sequencing
Spain Garcia-Sanmartin et al. [125] D. reticulatus (97) 5% B. canis, 1 (1%) PCR-RLB
     B. caballi, 1 (1%)  
     B. caballi-like, 2 (2%)  
     Babesia bigemina, 1 (1%)  
     Babesia divergens, 2 (2%)  
Switzerland Schaarschmidt et al. [88] D. reticulatus (23) 39% B. canis, 9 (39%) PCR sequencing
Ukraine Karbowiak et al. [170] D. reticulatus (205) 3.4% B. canis, 4 PCR sequencing
Ukraine Rogovskyy et al. [90] D. reticulatus (98) 4% B. canis, 1 (1%) PCR sequencing
     Babesia odocoilei-like, 3 (3%)  
USA Swei et al. [144] Dermacentor albipictus (471 questing larvae) 7.2% Babesia duncani (2 strains: WA1 And BH3), 34 (7.2%) PCR sequencing
China Abdallah et al. [171] Dermacentor silvarum (84) 4.8% Babesia motasi-like, 3 (3.6%) RLB, PCR sequencing
     Babesia sp. Xinjiang, 1 (1.2%)  
Mongolia Battsetseg et al. [153] Dermacentor nuttalli (108 = 54 pools) 6.5% MIR B. caballi, 7 (6.5% MIR) Species-specific PCR
  1. MIR Minimal infection rate, PCR polymerase chain reaction, RLB reverse line blot
  2. aQuesting and feeding ticks