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Table 1 Incidence of risk and protective factors for COVID-19 in men and women

From: Toxoplasmosis is a risk factor for acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection and a severe course of COVID-19 in the Czech and Slovak population: a preregistered exploratory internet cross-sectional study

  Women Men OR CI95 P
No COVID COVID No COVID COVID
N % N % N % N %
Toxoplasmosis 563 18.3 81 23.9 115 12.1 27 20.6 1.50 1.19–1.89 0.0007
Borreliosis 410 19.9 57 24.3 108 14.6 17 17.0 1.27 0.96–1.68 0.0881
Rh-positivity 1953 76.4 219 76.3 490 75.9 61 74.4 0.98 0.76–1.26 0.8854
A blood group 989 37.3 123 41.1 236 34.1 33 35.9 1.16 0.93–1.44 0.1795
B blood group 568 21.4 50 16.7 156 22.5 22 23.9 0.82 0.62–1.07 0.1368
AB blood group 247 9.3 34 11.4 91 13.1 13 14.1 1.19 0.86–1.65 0.2929
O blood group 850 32.0 92 30.8 210 30.3 24 26.1 0.91 0.73–1.15 0.4396
Being overweight 739 35.1 90 31.0 258 42.6 35 33.0 0.74 0.57–0.95 0.0169
Diabetes 75 3.6 7 2.4 28 4.6 8 7.6 0.96 0.52–1.76 0.8921
Cardiovascular problems 131 6.2 16 5.5 65 10.7 9 8.5 0.81 0.50–1.30 0.3820
Asthma 1846 87.7 256 88.3 544 89.9 89 84.0 1.13 0.80–1.59 0.4908
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 49 2.3 5 1.7 16 2.6 2 1.9 0.67 0.27–1.63 0.3737
Immunosuppression 289 13.7 40 13.8 52 8.6 9 8.5 1.00 0.70–1.42 0.9929
Allergy 548 26.0 77 26.6 150 24.8 28 26.4 1.06 0.81–1.37 0.6798
Autoimmunity 168 14.4 25 11.6 26 8.7 6 9.1 0.75 0.45–1.24 0.2545
Living alone 285 9.3 28 8.3 160 16.9 23 17.6 0.96 0.70–1.32 0.8027
Tobacco smoking 415 19.7 54 18.6 148 24.5 23 21.7 0.89 0.66–1.19 0.4341
Marijuana consumption 56 2.7 6 2.1 40 6.6 14 13.2 1.49 0.88–2.53 0.1367
Daily alcohol consumption 126 6.0 16 5.5 97 16.0 14 13.2 0.86 0.55–1.33 0.4887
Frequent singing 269 12.8 39 13.5 50 8.3 14 13.2 1.21 0.87–1.70 0.2612
Sport 620 29.5 92 31.7 274 45.3 60 56.6 1.30 1.03–1.65 0.0300
Cold water swimming 205 9.7 37 12.8 102 16.9 19 17.9 1.32 0.95–1.84 0.0989
Frequent sauna use 94 8.0 20 9.3 37 12.4 8 12.1 1.16 0.70–1.93 0.5558
Vitamins and supplements 753 35.8 133 45.9 289 47.8 60 56.6 0.62 0.49–0.78 0.0001
Wearing glasses 1101 60.4 169 61.9 371 67.8 67 66.3 0.96 0.75–1.24 0.7723
Dog-keeping 365 44.2 78 49.4 93 51.1 21 45.7 0.82 0.56–1.18 0.282
Cat-keeping 381 46.1 82 51.9 82 45.1 17 37.0 1.16 0.80–1.68 0.4303
  1. The last four columns show the results of logistic regression with COVID-19 infection as a dependent variable; age, sex, and size of the place of residence as covariates; and one of risk/protective factors listed in the first column as the independent variable. Results shown in bold were significant after correction for multiple tests
  2. CI95 means 95% confidence interval and OR odds ratio