Skip to main content

Table 2 Human infections by small mammal-associated Bartonella spp.

From: Emerging rodent-associated Bartonella: a threat for human health?

Bartonella spp. Clinical disease Patient details Microbiological diagnosis Antimicrobial therapy Clinical outcome References
Bartonella alsatica Prosthetic vascular graft infection Male, 66 years old, hunter PCRs (biopsies), sequence analysis Doxycycline 2 × 100 mg/day (6 months) Improvement of renal function (no comprehensible link to antibiotic treatment) [219]
Endocarditis Female, 77 years old, rabbit breeder Serology (not standardized)a, culture and PCR (blood) negative Gentamicin (15 days), amoxicillin (6 weeks) Clinical improvement, no details given [220]
Lymphadenopathy Female, 79 years old, rabbit butcher PCRs (lymph node), sequence analysis, serology (not standardized)a, histology (unspecific)b Doxycycline 200 mg/day (3 weeks) Surgical removal of lymph nodes, no further details given [115]
Endocarditis Male, 74 years old, bioprosthetic aortic valve, parotideal cancer Shell vial culture, PCR (valves and blood), sequence analysis, histology (unspecific)b Amoxicillin 12 g/day, gentamicin 320 mg/day changed to doxycycline 200 mg/day (6 weeks), ceftriaxone 2 g/day Valve replacement, patient became apyretic [221]
Bartonella doshiae Unspecific (fatigue, blurred vision, arthralgia) Female, 45 years old Prolonged cultivation, PCR detection from blood NA NA [222]
Bartonella elizabethae Bacillary angiomatosis Male, 35 years old, human immunodeficiency virus-positive PCR (biopsy), sequence analysis, histology (unspecific)b NA No patient follow-up (patient incompliance) [223]
Acute febrile illness Patients from rural Thailand (n = 2/14) PCR from shell vial cultures, sequence analysis NA NA [224]
Lymphadenopathy Female, 18 years old, culture negative PCRs (lymph node) Azithromycin 3 × 250 mg/day, duration NA Restitutio ad integrum [225]
Bartonella grahamii Lymphadenopathy Female, 57 years old, cat scratch (exposed to infected rodents), leukaemia and bone marrow transplantation Several PCRs (lymph node) and sequence analysis, histology (unspecific)b Azithromycin 250 mg/day (5 weeks) Clinical restitutio ad integrum, no abnormal findings by ultrasound examination [25]
B. grahamiic Neuroretinitis Male, 55 years old, dog owner PCRs (anterior chamber fluid), sequence analysis, serology (not standardized)a Doxycycline 200 mg/day, rifampin 600 mg/day Intraocular inflammation extinguished, cataract development [226]
Bartonella rattimassiliensis Acute febrile illness Patients from rural Thailand (n = 1) PCR from shell vial cultures, sequence analysis NA NA [224]
Bartonella tribocorum Acute febrile illness, unspecific (fatigue, muscle pain, headache) Patients from rural Thailand (n = 1) Shell vial culture, PCR (blood) and sequence analysis NA NA [224]
Male, 64 years old, dog owner Prolonged cultivation, PCR detection from blood NA NA [222]
Bartonella vinsonii subsp. vinsonii Acute febrile illness Patients from rural Thailand (n = 1) PCR from shell vial cultures, sequence analysis NA NA [224]
Blood stream infection (fever, unspecific neuropsychiatric symptoms) Female, 14 years old Pre-enriched media PCRs (blood), sequence analysis Doxycycline (2 months), clarithromycin (2 months), rifampin (2 months), no success Minimal symptomatic improvement [227]
Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis Acute febrile illness Patients from rural Thailand (n = 2) PCR from shell vial cultures, sequence analysis NA NA [224]
Acute febrile illness, unspecific (fever, myalgia, fatigue), elevated liver enzymes Patients from rural Thailand (n = 4) Pre-enriched media PCR, sequence analysis NA NA [228]
Hepatic granulomatous lesions Female, 11 years old, cat exposure PCR (liver biopsy, cat blood) Azithromycin 500 mg (4 weeks) followed by doxycycline 2 × 100 mg (four weeks) Clinical improvement (decrease in size of hepatic lesions) [229]
Endocarditis Male, 79 years old, bioprosthetic aortic valve Serology (non-standardized)a, PCR, (serum) sequence analysis Doxycycline 200 mg/day, ofloxacin 200 mg/day, duration NA Clinical improvement (no details given) [230]
  1. n Number of patients examined; NA not available
  2. aExperimental approach; applied serology not evaluated according to laboratory diagnostic standards
  3. bDetection of structures under Warthin–Starry staining or similar staining (no specific staining for Bartonella spp.)
  4. cSpecies identification questionable, more likely Bartonella tribocorum [25]