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Table 3 Probability of co-infections occurring by chance (n = 461)

From: Prevalence and predictors of vector-borne pathogens in Dutch roe deer

  Bartonella spp. Babesia spp. Rickettsia spp.
A. phagocytophilum Oa: 296 (64.2%) O: 70 (15.2%) O: 13 (2.8%)
  Eb: 278.79 (60.5%) E: 62.29 (13.5%) E:11.68 (2.5%)
  χ2 = 20.26, df = 1, P < 0.001* c χ2 = 4.55, df = 1, P = 0.033* P = 0.539, OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 0–17
Bartonella spp.   O: 67 (14.5%) O: 11 (2.4%)
   E: 62.13 (13.5%) E: 11.65 (2.5%)
   χ2 = 1.67, df = 1, P = 0.197 P = 0.752, OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0–3
Babesia spp.    O: 3 (0.65%)
    E: 2.6 (0.56%)
    P = 0.732, OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0–3
  1. aObserved
  2. bExpected
  3. cP-value as determined by Chi-square test (A. phagocytophilum, Babesia spp., Bartonella ssp.) or Fisher’s exact test (Rickettsia spp.)
  4. *Statistically significant