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Table 1 First and key examples of transgenesis in nematodes, trematodes and cestodes of human and veterinary impact, the gene targeted and the methodology used

From: Transgenesis in parasitic helminths: a brief history and prospects for the future

Three groups of parasitic intestinal helminths Species Plasmid RNAi CRISPR
Method Gene Date References Method Gene Date References Method Gene Date References
Nematodes Ascaris suum Biolistics luciferase 1999 [16] Soaking enolase 2011 [54]     
Haemonchus contortus      Soaking H11 aminopeptidase 2011 [53]     
Trichostrongylus colubriformis Soaking ubiquitin 2005 [66] Bacteria feeding tropomyosin 2005 [66]     
T. colubriformis Electroporation ubiquitin 2005 [66]         
Brugia malayi Biolistics GFP 2002 [17] Soaking β-tubulin 2003 [52] Lipofection GFP 2020 [84]
B. malayi Microinjection GFP 2002 [17]         
B. malayi Chemical transfectant luciferase 2011 [45]         
Strongyloides stercoralis Microinjection GFP 2002 [18]      Microinjection unc-22 2017 [79]
S. stercoralis Microinjection GFP 2006 [30]      Liposomes + Microinjection collagen 2019 [83]
S. stercoralis Microinjection GFP 2013 [39]         
Strongyloides ratti Microinjection GFP 2011 [37]      Microinjection unc-22 2017 [79]
S. ratti Microinjection GFP 2012 [38]         
S. ratti Microinjection T cell epitope 2021 [21]         
Nippostrongylus brasiliensis      Soaking AChE B 2002 [51]     
N. brasiliensis      Viral vector β-tubulin/Ache B 2021 [75]     
Parastrongyloides trichosuri Microinjection GFP 2006 [35]         
Trematodes Schistosoma mansoni Biolistics luciferase 1999 [16] Electroporation cathepsin B 2005 23] Viral vector omega-1 2019 [86]
S. mansoni Viral vector luciferase 2006 [42] Viral vector omega-1 2014 [73] Electroporation omega-1 2019 [86]
S. mansoni Viral vector luciferase 2008 [46]      Electroporation AChEs 2021 [22]
S. mansoni Viral vector luciferase 2012 [47]      Electroporation SULT-OR 2021 [94]
S. mansoni Electroporation + viral vector luciferase 2010 [43]         
S. mansoni Biolistics cathepsins ORF-GFP 2010 [32]         
S. mansoni Electroporation cathepsins ORF-GFP 2010 [32]         
S. mansoni Chemical transfectant mCherry 2013 [44]         
S. mansoni Viral vector HIV-1 genes 2016 [92]         
Schistosoma japonicum      Soaking gynecophoral Canal Protein 2005 [55]     
S. japonicum      Microinjection cathepsin B1 2018 [71]     
Opisthorchis viverrini      Electroporation cathepsin B 2011 [61] Electroporation granulin 2019 [20]
O. viverrini      Electroporation + Soaking tetraspanins 2012 [60]     
Fasciola hepatica      Soaking cathepsin B & L 2008 [56]     
F. hepatica      Electroporation + Soaking Leucine aminopeptidase 2014 [61]     
Cestodes Moniezia expansa      Electroporation + Soaking actin 2010 [59]     
Echinococcus multilocularis Bacterial vector CFP 2008 [31] Soaking elp 2010 [62]     
E. multilocularis      Electroporation elp 2010 [62]     
Hymenolepis microstoma      Soaking Hox 2013 [63]     
Taenia crassiceps Microinjection GFP 2015 [33]