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Table 3 Cross-comparison and agreement of paired tests (H&E, IHC, cPCR and qPCR)

From: Comparison of immunohistochemical and qPCR methods from granulomatous dermatitis lesions for detection of leishmania in dogs living in endemic areas: a preliminary study

Diagnostic methods Diagnostic method
N (%)
χ2 (p)/Overall agreement (k)
H&E staining [a] IHC [b] cPCR [c] qPCR [d]
H&E staining [a] 8 (26.66%) ne/ne
IHC [b] 14 (46.66%) [a] vs [b]: 2.58(0.1)/ 0.8 (0.58) ne/ne  
cPCR [c] 14 (46.66%)  [a] vs [c]: 2.58 (0.1)/ 0.66 (0.32) [b] vs [c]: 0 (1)/ 0.8(0.65) ne/ne
qPCR [d] 21 (70%) [a] vs [d]:11.28 (< 0.001*)/ 0.56 (0.27) [b] vs [d]: 1.76 (0.18)/ 0.7 (0.41) [c] vs [d]: 1.76 (0.18) / 0.63 (0.28) sne/ne
  1. n = 30 skin samples
  2. κ, Kappa coefficient, ;  ne, not estimated
  3. *Statistical difference between methods for the same sample