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Table 10 GRADE summary of findings table for pregnant women [79]

From: Systematic review to evaluate a potential association between helminth infection and physical stunting in children

Certainty assessment No. of patients Effect Certainty Importance
No. of studies Study design Risk of bias Inconsistency Indirectness Imprecision Other considerations anthelmintic placebo Relative
(95% CI)
Absolute
(95% CI)
Low birth weight (< 2500 g)
4 Randomised trials Serious a Not serious Not serious Not serious None 126/1768 (7.1%) 139/1676 (8.3%) OR 0.86
(0.67 to 1.10)
11 fewer per 1000
(from 26 fewer to 8 more)

MODERATE
CRITICAL
Very low birth weight (< 1500 g)
3 Randomised trials Not serious Not serious Not serious Not serious None 6/1482 (0.4%) 15/1432 (1.0%) OR 0.46
(0.12 to 1.75)
6 fewer per 1000
(from 9 fewer to 8 more)

HIGH
IMPORTANT
Mean birth weight (kg)
4 Randomised trials Serious b Not serious Not serious Not serious None 1768 1676 - MD 0.01 kg more
(0.03 fewer to 0.04 more)

MODERATE
CRITICAL
  1. CI: confidence interval, MD: mean difference, OR: odds ratio, Question: Anthelmintic compared to placebo in pregnant women with helminthiasis to reduce the risk of having a low birth weight baby 
  2. aRisk of bias was upgraded by one level because one study did not diagnose helminth infection (Akpan et al., 2018)
  3. bRisk of bias was upgraded by one level because one study did not diagnose helminth infection (Akpan et al., 2018)
  4. GRADE Working Group grades of evidence
  5. High certainty: we are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect
  6. Moderate certainty: we are moderately confident in the effect estimate; the true effect is likely to be close to the estimate of the effect, but there is a possibility that it is substantially different
  7. Low certainty: our confidence in the effect estimate is limited; the true effect may be substantially different from the estimate of the effect
  8. Very low certainty: we have very little confidence in the effect estimate; the true effect is likely to be substantially different from the estimate of effect