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Table 7 Pre-post and non-randomised controlled trial studies included in systematic review

From: Systematic review to evaluate a potential association between helminth infection and physical stunting in children

Authors Year Country Helminth type Population of interest ROB—overall grade Association found between helminth infection and stunting?
Forrester et al. 1998 Mexico STHs PSAC + SAC Low Possibly
Ahmed et al. 2012 Malaysia STHs SAC Medium Yes
Belizario et al. 2014 Philippines STHs SAC Medium Possibly
Abudho et al. 2020 Kenya schisto + STHs SAC Medium No
Coutinho et al. 2006 Philippines schisto SAC Medium Possibly
Degarege et al. 2013 Ethiopia STHs + schisto SAC Medium No
Efunshile, AM 2017 Nigeria STHs PSAC + SAC Medium No
Fernando et al. 2001 Sri Lanka STHs SAC Medium No
Hadju et al. 1998 Indonesia STHs SAC Medium Possibly
Hagel et al. 1999 Venezuela STHs SAC Medium Possibly
Halpenny et al. 2013 Panama STHs PSAC Medium No
Hesham Al-Mekhlafi et al. 2008 Malaysia STHs SAC Medium No
Humphries et al. 2017 Ghana STHs SAC Medium No
Hurlimann et al. 2014 Côte d'Ivoire STHs + schisto SAC Medium No
Kightlinger et al. 1996 Madagascar STHs PSAC + SAC Medium No
Longfils et al. 2005 Cambodia STHs SAC Medium No
S Mahendra Raj 1998 Malaysia STHs SAC Medium No
Osakunor et al. 2018 Zimbabwe schisto PSAC Medium Yes
Passerini et al. 2012 Vietnam STHs PW Medium Yes
Shield et al. 1986 Papua New Guinea STHs PSAC Medium No
Sircar et al. 2018 Kenya STHs + schisto SAC Medium No
Staudacher et al. 2014 Rwanda STHs SAC Medium Yes
Stephenson et al. 1980 Kenya STHs PSAC + SAC Medium No
Stephenson et al. 1989b Kenya STHs + schisto SAC Medium No
Tanner et al. 1987 Tanzania STHs + schisto PSAC + SAC Medium No
Walia et al. 2021 Multi-country STHs PW Medium Yes
Zhou et al. 2005 China schisto SAC Medium No
Best et al. 1976 Australia STHs SAC High No
De Silva et al. 1999 Sri Lanka STHs PW High Possibly
Echazu et al. 2017 Argentina STHs PSAC + SAC High Yes
  1. BFW: breast-feeding women, I: infants (0-1 year old), Possibly: some association between helminth infection and stunting may have been found, or a suggestion of benefit with anthelmintic treatment, but no statistically significant association was found. Also applies when a suspected association was found in case reports and case series, as these study designs provide a weaker level of evidence. (Age group category thresholds for children as defined by WHO [16]), PSAC: pre-school age children (1-5 year olds), PW: pregnant women, ROB: risk of bias, SAC: school age children (5+ to 20 year olds), schisto: schistosomes, STH: soil-transmitted helminths