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Table 1 Tick-borne pathogens of parasitic and bacterial origin detected in raccoon (Procyon lotor) in its native and introduced range

From: Invasive raccoon (Procyon lotor) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) as potential reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens: data review from native and introduced areas

TBPs Species/genospecies Locality Prevalence Diagnostic test References
Babesia/Theileria spp. B. microti-like USA-native 1/1 (100%) PCR [38]
B. microti-like Japan-introduced 2/24 (8.3%) PCR [34]
Babesia sp. USA-native 1/1 (100%) PCR [42]
B. microti-like USA-native 34/41 (84%) PCR [40]
Babesia sp.   37/41 (90%)   
Babesia sp. Japan-introduced 6/348 (1.7%) PCR [35]
Theileria sp.   0/348   
B. microti-like   0/348   
B. microti-like USA-native 14/17 (82.4%) PCR [41]
B. microti-likea Austria-introduced 0/4 PCR [28]
B. microti-like USA-native 70/106 (66%) PCR [36]
Babesia sp.   11/106 (10%)   
B. microti-like USA/Canada 490/699 (70%) PCR [37]
Babesia sp.   170/699 (24%)   
B. microti USA-native 5/15(33.3%) PCR [39]
B. microti USA-native 0/3 PCR [54]
Babesia sp. Spain-introduced 0/2 PCR [43]
B. vulpes   0/2   
Hepatozoon spp. Hepatozoon sp. USA-native 4/4 (100%) PCR [44]
H. canis Spain-introduced 5/194 (2.57%) PCR [45]
Hepatozoon sp. USA-native 3/15 (20%) PCR [39]
H. canis Spain-introduced 0/2 PCR [43]
H. felis   0/2   
H. martis   0/2   
Borrelia spp. B. burgdorferi USA-native 1/21 (4.8%) IFAT [46]
B. burgdorferi USA-native 75/370 (20%) ELISA [47]
B. burgdorferi USA-native 23/87 (26%) IFAT [48]
B. burgdorferi USA-native 9/200 (4.5%) IFAT [49]
Borrelia sp. USA-native IFAT 69/156 (44.23%) IFAT/PCR [50]
   PCR 0/169   
B. afzelii Japan-introduced 1/752 (0.1%) IIA [55]
B. garinii   1/752 (0.1%)   
B. lonestari USA-native 1/19 (5.3%) IFAT [51]
B. burgdorferi USA-native 0/30 IFAT [52]
B. turicatae USA-native 2/25 (8%) Immunobloting [53]
B. burgdorferi USA-native 1/39 (2.6%) PCR [54]
B. miyamotoi   0/39   
Rickettsia spp. R. rickettsi USA-native 17/94 (18.1%) CF [56]
R. rickettsi USA-native 35/129 (27.1%) IFAT [57]
R. montana   8/129 (6.2%)   
R. bellii 369-C strain   9/129 (6.9%)   
R. rickettsi USA-native 55/120 (45.8%) micro-IF [58]
R. montana   1/120 (0.8%)   
R. bellii 369-C strain   2/120 (1.7%)   
R. rickettsi USA-native 3/14 (21.4%) MAT [59]
R. helvetica Japan-introduced 11/699 (1.6%) PCR [62]
R. felis   1/699 (0.1%)   
R. heliongjiangensis/R. japonica   1/699 (0.1%)   
R. typhi USA-native 0/9 IFAT [60]
R. japonica Japan-introduced 14/752 (1.9%) IIA [55]
R. tsutsugamushi   39/752 (5.2%)   
R. parkeri USA-native 14/19 (73.7%) IFAT [51]
R. amblyommi Japan-introduced 3/194 (1.5%) PCR [63]
Rickettsia sp. Hj126   3/194 (1.5%)   
R. helvetica   1/194 (0.5%)   
R. rickettsi USA-native 3/30 (10%) IFAT [52]
Rickettsia sp. USA-native 0/1 IFAT [61]
Rickettsia sp. USA-native 3/39 (7.7%) PCR [54]
Bartonella spp. B. rochalimae USA-native 11/42 (26%) PCR [65]
Bartonella sp. Japan-introduced 0/977 PCR [69]
B. henselae USA-native 12/37 (32.4%) PCR [66]
B. koehlerae   1/37 (2.7%)   
B. clarridgeiae   0/37   
B. rochalimae USA-native 11/186 (5.9%) PCR [67]
B. berkhoffii   3/186 (1.6%)   
Bartonella sp. USA-native 0/39 PCR [54]
B.taylorii-like Canada-native 1/1 (100%) PCR [68]
Anaplasma spp. A. phagocytophilum USA-native IFAT 51/57 (89.5%) IFAT/PCR [70]
   PCR 14/57 (24.6%)   
A. phagocytophilum USA-native IFAT 1/60 (1.7%) IFAT/PCR [71]
   PCR 0/60   
A. phagocytophilum Japan-introduced IFAT 1/187 (0.5%) IFAT/PCR [73]
   PCR 0/9   
A. phagocytophilum USA-native IFAT 1/156 (0.64%) IFAT/PCR [50]
   PCR 0/169   
A.phagocytophilum Japan-introduced 0/699 PCR [72]
A. bovis   36/699 (5.15%)   
Anaplasma sp. Austria-introduced 0/4 PCR [28]
Anaplasma sp. Czech Republic-introduced 0/15 PCR [6]
A. phagocytophilum Poland-introduced 1/78 (1.3%) PCR [74]
  Germany-introduced 0/40   
A. phagocytophilum USA-native 15/39 (38.5%) PCR [54]
A. marginale   0/39   
Ehrlichia spp. E. chaffeensis USA-native IFAT 9/43 (21%) IFAT [75]
E. chaffeensis USA-native IFAT 83/411 (20%) IFAT/PCR [76]
   PCR 0/20   
E. canis USA-native IFAT 13/60 (21.7%) IFAT/ PCR [71]
   PCR 1/60 (1.7%)   
E. chaffeensis   IFAT 23/60 (38.3%)   
   PCR 0/60   
E. ewingii   PCR 0/60   
E. canis Japan-introduced IFAT 1/187 (0.5%) IFAT/PCR [73]
   PCR 0/9   
E. chaffeensis   IFAT 3/187 (1.6%)   
   PCR 0/9   
E. chaffeensis USA-native IFAT 49/156 (31.41%) IFAT/PCR [50]
   PCR 0/169   
E. canis   IFAT 18/156 (11.53%)   
   PCR 0/169   
E. ewingii   0/169 PCR   
E. chaffeensis USA-native 8/19 (42.1%) IFAT [51]
E. chaffeensis Japan-introduced 0/699 PCR [72]
E. canis   0/699   
E. canis Austria-introduced 0/4 PCR [28]
Ehrlichia sp. Czech Republic-introduced 0/15 PCR [6]
E. canis Spain-introduced 5/194 (2.57%) PCR [45]
E. canis USA-native 0/39 PCR [54]
E. ewingii   0/39   
E. chaffeensis   0/39   
Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. Candidatus Neoehrlichia lotoris USA-native 32/60 (53.3%) PCR [71]
Candidatus Neoehrlichia lotoris USA-native 131/197 (67%) PCR [78]
Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. Czech Republic-introduced 0/15 PCR [6]
Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. Poland-introduced 0//78 PCR [74]
  Germany-introduced 0/40   
  1. Prevalence and diagnostic tests are included for each reference
  2. CF, Complement-fixing antibodies; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; IFAT, indirect fluorescent antibody test, IIA, indirect immunoperoxidase assay; MAT, microaglutination antibody test; PCR, polymerase chain reaction
  3. aB. microti-like name was used for all sequences belonging to B. microti group and reported by authors as B. cf. microti