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Table 2 Tick-borne pathogens of parasitic and bacterial origin detected in free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in their native and introduced range

From: Invasive raccoon (Procyon lotor) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) as potential reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens: data review from native and introduced areas

TBPs Species/genospecies Locality Prevalence Diagnostic test References
Babesia/Theileria spp. B. microti-like South Korea-native 3/14 (21.4%) PCR [80]
B. microti South Korea-native 0/23 PCR [81]
B. microti-likea Austria-introduced 5/8 (62.5%) PCR [28]
Theileria sp. South Korea-native 0/15 PCR [82]
Borrelia spp. B. afzelii Poland-introduced 2/28 (25%) PCR [84]
B. garinii   5/28 (62.5%)   
B. valaisiana   1/28 (12.5%)   
B. theileri South Korea-native 1/142 (0.7%) PCR [22]
Rickettsia spp. R. japonica Japan-native 0/30 IFAT [85]
R. tsutsugamushi   0/30   
R. japonica South Korea-native 11/36 (30.5%) IFAT [86]
R. typhi   15/36 (41.6%)   
Rickettsia sp. South Korea-native 0/ 15 PCR [82]
Bartonella spp. Bartonella sp. Japan-native 0/171 PCR [69]
B. henselae South Korea-native 2/142 (1.5%) PCR [22]
B. rochalimae Japan-native 44/619 (7.1%) PCR [88]
Anaplasma spp. A. phagocytophilum Germany-introduced 3/13 (23.2%) PCR [89]
Anaplasma sp. Austria-introduced 0/8 PCR [28]
Anaplasma sp. Czech Republic-introduced 0/7 PCR [6]
A. bovis South Korea-native 1/15 (6.6%) PCR [82]
A. phagocytophilum Poland-introduced 0/10 (30%) PCR [74]
A. phagocytophilum
A. bovis
South Korea-native 2/193 (1%)
4/193 (2.1%)
PCR [22]
A. phagocytophilum Poland-introduced 24/68 (35.3%) PCR [90]
Ehrlichia spp. Ehrlichia sp. South Korea-native 0/15 PCR [82]
E. canis Austria-introduced 0/8 PCR [28]
Ehrlichia sp. Czech Republic-introduced 0/7 PCR [6]
Candidatus Neoehrlichia spp. Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. Austria-introduced 0/8 PCR [28]
Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. Czech Republic-introduced 0/7 PCR [6]
Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. (FU98) Poland-introduced 3/10 (30%) PCR [74]
  1. Prevalence and diagnostic test are included for each reference
  2. IFAT, indirect fluorescent antibody test, PCR, polymerase chain reaction
  3. aB. microti-like name was used for all sequences belonging to B. microti group and reported by authors as B. cf. microti