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Table 3 Commercial anthelmintic drugs and their activity at different concentrations for each Haemonchus contortus assay

From: Sensitivity of Haemonchus contortus to anthelmintics using different in vitro screening assays: a comparative study

Drug concentration (µM) % of motility on xL3s (average ± SEM)a % of L4 development (average ± SEM)b Adult stage motility score (average ± SEM)a
Ivermectin 1 25.8 ± 11.6c 1.4 ± 2.7d 0.7 ± 0.5e
0.1 106.0 ± 21.7 37.0 ± 9.5d 0.6 ± 0.2e
0.01 104.9 ± 23.5 66.9 ± 20.7 0.7 ± 0.4e
0.001 NT 86.7 ± 21.4 0.8 ± 0.3e
0.0001 NT NT 1.3 ± 0.1e
Levamisole 50 0.6 ± 1.6c 0.0 ± 0.0d NT
5 72.6 ± 13.4 8.9 ± 3.7d 0.0 ± 0.0e
0.5 128.1 ± 25.6 89.5 ± 3.1 0.0 ± 0.0e
0.005 NT NT 1.9 ± 0.2
0.0005 NT NT 2.8 ± 0.1
Monepantel 2 3.5 ± 3.7c 4.0 ± 1.1d 0.3 ± 0.2e
0.2 9.3 ± 7.1c 20.1 ± 18.0d 0.7 ± 0.2e
0.02 127.2 ± 26.3 85.5 ± 20.5 1.0 ± 0.2e
0.002 NT NT 2.2 ± 0.1
Albendazole sulfoxide 36 37.5 ± 14.5c 0.0 ± 0.0d 1.0 ± 0.0e
3.6 56.4 ± 13.5c 1.9 ± 2.1d 1.4 ± 0.3e
0.36 134.8 ± 27.5 55.1 ± 16.9d 1.3 ± 0.2e
0.036 116.2 ± 20.2 74.5 ± 15.4 2.3 ± 0.0
  1. Bold numbers indicate that the drug was active at the concentration tested
  2. aMeasured at 72 h of drug exposure
  3. bMeasured at 7 days of drug exposure
  4. NT not tested
  5. cMotility was significantly different from motility of DMSO control (P < 0.05) (see “Statistical analysis” section for further details)
  6. dDevelopment was significantly different from development of DMSO control (P < 0.05)) (see “Statistical analysis” section for further details)
  7. eMotility score of a compound at 72 h time point ≤ 1.5 is considered active[19]