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Table 1 Characteristics among the population with abnormal BMD (% within group)

From: Toxoplasma gondii infection as a risk factor for osteoporosis: a case–control study

Variables Overall
(N = 729)
Osteopenia
(N = 316)
Osteoporosis
(N = 413)
P-value
Age/years
(Mean ± SD)
69.89 ± 9.88 67.28 ± 9.64 71.89 ± 9.60  < 0.001***
 Sex
  Male 179 (24.55) 109 (34.49) 70 (16.95)  < 0.001***
  Female 550 (75.45) 207 (65.51) 343 (83.05)  
 Job
  Retire 292 (40.05) 126 (39.87) 166 (40.19) 0.995
  Worker/farmer 117 (16.05) 52 (16.46) 65 (15.74)  
  Others 274 (37.59) 118 (37.34) 156 (37.77)  
  Missing 46 (6.31) 20 (6.33) 26 (6.30)  
 Smoking
  No 715 (98.08) 310 (98.10) 405 (98.06) 0.970
  Yes 14 (1.92) 6 (1.90) 8 (1.94)  
 Drinking
  No 699 (95.88) 298 (94.30) 401 (97.09) 0.060
  Yes 30 (4.12) 18 (5.70) 12 (2.91)  
 Hormone taking
  No 684 (93.83) 294 (93.04) 390 (94.43) 0.439
  Yes 45 (6.17) 22 (6.96) 23 (5.57)  
 TG
  ≤ 1.5 mmol/L 427 (63.73) 164 (57.54) 263 (68.31) 0.004**
  > 1.5 mmol/L 243 (36.27) 121 (42.46) 122 (31.69)  
 TC
  ≤ 4.5 mmol/L 243 (36.27) 98 (34.39) 145 (37.66) 0.383
  > 4.5 mmol/L 427 (63.73) 187 (65.61) 240 (62.34)  
 Number of comorbidities
  0 426 (58.44) 172 (54.43) 254 (61.50) 0.135
  1 195 (26.75) 95 (30.06) 100 (24.21)  
  ≥ 2 108 (14.81) 49 (15.51) 59 (14.29)  
 T. gondii infection
  No 616 (84.50) 283 (89.56) 333 (80.63) 0.001**
  Yes 113 (15.50) 33 (10.44) 80 (19.37)  
  1. BMD bone mineral density, TG triglyceride, TC total cholesterol, CVD comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, SD standard deviation
  2. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001;