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Table 3 Percent of positive test results, total number of dog samples tested, and 95% confidence intervals for each country and respective vector-borne disease for the 2016–2020 study period

From: Seropositivity of main vector-borne pathogens in dogs across Europe

Country Anaplasma spp. Ehrlichia spp. Borrelia burgdorferi Dirofilaria immitis Leishmania spp.
Positive % of tests (95% CI)
 Andorra 2.7% (187; 0.9–6.1%) 2.1% (187; 0.6–5.4%) 0.0% (187; 0.0–2.0%) 2.1% (187; 0.6–5.4%)
 Austria 17.3% (4572; 16.2–18.4%) 2.5% (4572; 2.0–3.0%) 6.1% (4572; 5.4–6.9%) 1.9% (4578; 1.6–2.4%)
 Belgium 4.5% (772; 3.2–6.2%) 2.8% (772; 1.8–4.3%) 3.0% (772; 1.9–4.4%) 1.5% (843; 0.8–2.6%)
 Bosnia and 21.4% (3671; 1.1% (3671; 2.2% (3671; 1.0% (3698; 11.0% (172;
 Herzegovina 20.1–22.7%) 0.8–1.5%) 1.7–2.7%) 0.7–1.4%) 6.8–16.7%)
 Croatia 7.4% (2417; 6.4–8.5%) 1.4% (2417; 0.9–1.9%) 0.4% (2417; 0.2–0.7%) 2.6% (2417; 2.0–3.3%) 7.0% (1761; 5.9–8.3%)
 Czech Republic 19.3% (6238; 18.3–20.3%) 1.5% (6238; 1.2–1.8%) 7.6% (6238; 7.0–8.3%) 0.2% (6244; 0.1–0.4%)
 Denmark 7.7% (7784; 7.1–8.3%) 0.3% (7784; 0.2–0.5%) 4.4% (7784; 4.0–4.9%) 0.4% (8978; 0.2–0.5%)
 Estonia 9.1% (451; 6.6–12.1%) 0.4% (451; 0.1–1.6%) 8.6% (451; 6.2–11.6%) 0.2% (451; 0.0–1.2%)
 Finland 3.5% (6084; 3.0–3.9%) 0.6% (6084; 0.4–0.8%) 5.6% (6084; 5.0–6.2%) 0.4% (6084; 0.2–0.5%)
 France 2.7% (18,070; 2.5–3.0%) 2.8% (18,070; 2.6–3.1%) 2.7% (18,074; 2.5–3.0%) 0.8% (18,356; 0.7–1.0%) 8.7% (5307; 8.0–9.5%)
 Germany 14.2% (20,582; 13.7–14.7%) 1.4% (20,582; 1.2–1.5%) 6.0% (20,583; 5.7–6.3%) 0.8% (20,632; 0.7–1.0%) 11.8% (686; 9.5–14.5%)
 Greece 9.9% (6488; 9.1–10.6%) 19.6% (6488; 18.6–20.6%) 0.0% (6488; 0.0–0.1%) 2.4% (6497; 2.1–2.8%) 18.5% (9568; 17.7–19.3%)
 Hungary 3.9% (593; 2.5–5.8%) 0.2% (593; 0.0–0.9%) 0.8% (593; 0.3–2.0%) 11.5% (724; 9.2–14.0%)
 Italy 2.6% (64,879; 2.5–2.7%) 5.1% (64,879; 5.0–5.3%) 0.4% (64,879; 0.4–0.5%) 1.9% (84,105; 1.8–2.0%) 11.9% (90,532; 11.7–12.1%)
 Lithuania 8.9% (203; 5.3–13.7%) 5.4% (203; 2.7–9.5%) 11.8% (203; 7.7–17.1%) 5.4% (203; 2.7–9.5%)
 Malta 0.0% (161; 0.0–2.3%) 11.8% (161; 7.3–17.8%) 0.0% (161; 0.0–2.3%) 0.0% (161; 0.0–2.3%) 15.9% (289; 11.9–20.7%)
 The Netherlands 9.1% (1154; 7.5–10.9%) 4.7% (1154; 3.5–6.1%) 9.7% (1154; 8.1–11.6%) 1.8% (1170; 1.1–2.7%) 32.4% (136; 24.6–0.9%)
 Norway 3.5% (3051; 2.9–4.2%) 0.7% (3051; 0.4–1.0%) 10.2% (3051; 9.1–11.3%) 0.0% (3051; 0.0–0.2%)
 Poland 10.5% (3812; 9.6–11.5%) 1.2% (3812; 0.9–1.6%) 5.4% (3812; 4.7–6.1%) 0.8% (3816; 0.6–1.2%)
 Portugal 4.7% (1285; 3.7–6.1%) 8.2% (1285; 6.7–9.8%) 0.2% (1285; 0.0–0.7%) 3.1% (1690; 2.3–4.0%) 13.8% (1329; 12.0–15.7%)
 Romania 5.9% (13,995; 5.6–6.3%) 7.0% (13,995; 6.5–7.4%) 0.6% (13,995; 0.5–0.8%) 11.5% (14,169; 11.0–12.1%) 0.6% (2546; 0.3–1.0%)
 Russia 4.7% (1819; 3.7–5.7%) 10.9% (1819; 9.5–12.4%) 2.1% (1819; 1.5–2.9%) 9.2% (2004; 8.0–10.5%)
 Slovakia 13.5% (1584; 11.9–15.3%) 0.8% (1584; 0.4–1.4%) 3.3% (1584; 2.5–4.4%) 0.4% (1585; 0.2–0.9%)
 Slovenia 13.1% (731; 10.8–15.8%) 0.4% (731; 0.1–1.2%) 7.4% (731; 5.6–9.5%) 0.1% (732; 0.0–0.8%)
 Spain 2.4% (39,526; 2.3–2.6%) 3.1% (39,526; 3.0–3.3%) 0.2% (39,526; 0.2–0.3%) 1.9% (44,559; 1.8–2.1%) 10.7% (98,737; 10.5–10.9%)
 Sweden 12.7% (10,046; 12.1–13.4%) 0.6% (10,047; 0.5–0.8%) 13.3% (10,050; 12.7–14.0%) 0.1% (10,050; 0.1–0.2%)
 Switzerland 4.7% (1006; 3.5–6.2%) 3.1% (1006; 2.1–4.3%) 7.5% (1006; 5.9–9.3%) 2.0% (1013; 1.2–3.0%) 12.2% (221; 8.2–17.3%)
 United Kingdom 1.2% (2631; 0.8–1.7%) 1.4% (2631; 1.0–1.9%) 1.1% (2631; 0.8–1.6%) 1.1% (2774; 0.8–1.6%)