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Dipteran vectors and associated diseases

Subject Editors 
Fredros Okumu, Ifakara Health Institute, Tanzania 
Marco Pombi, La Sapienza University of Rome, Italy

Associate Editors
Gioia Bongiorno, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Italy
Luciano V. Cosme, Yale University, USA
Josiane Etang, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany
Claudia Fortuna, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Italy
Bruno Gomes da Silva, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Brazil
Camila González Rosas, Universidad de los Andes, Colombia
Basile Kamgang, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine/OCEAC, Cameroon
Camila Lorenz, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil
Marta Maia, University of Oxford, UK
Ademir Martins, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Brazil
Pie Müller, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Switzerland
Bethan Purse, Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, UK
Ellie Sherrard-Smith, Imperial College London, UK
Sibao Wang, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Charles Wondji, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, UK

The Dipteran vectors and associated disease section publishes studies relating to the systematics, phylogenetics, identification (including new species descriptions), population genetics, bionomics, ecology, distribution, predictive mapping, diagnostics, surveillance and control of dipteran vectors and their associated diseases, particularly Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Glossina, Simulium, Culicoides and phlebotomines.

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  1. Tabanids are a neglected group of haematophagous dipterans despite containing 4434 species, regrouped in > 144 genera. They are mechanical vectors of important pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and protoz...

    Authors: Silas L. Sevidzem, Aubin A. Koumba, Genevieve L. Yao-Acapovi and Jacques F. Mavoungou

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:392

    Content type: Research

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  2. Mosquito-borne diseases affect over half of the human population globally. Multiple studies have shown that chemical insecticides are ineffective because of resistance. Therefore, environmentally safe mosquito...

    Authors: Xiaowen Fei, Yang Zhang, Lili Ding, Sha Xiao, Xiaoqing Xie, Yajun Li and Xiaodong Deng

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:387

    Content type: Research

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  3. The impacts and limitations of personal protection measures against exposure to vectors of malaria and other mosquito-borne pathogens depend on behavioural interactions between humans and mosquitoes. Therefore...

    Authors: Gerry F. Killeen, April Monroe and Nicodem J. Govella

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:384

    Content type: Review

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  4. Aedes aegypti can transmit arboviruses worldwide, and Bacillus thuringiensis svar. israelensis (Bti)-based larvicides represent an effective tool for controlling this species. The safety of Bti and lack of resist...

    Authors: Karine da Silva Carvalho, Duschinka Ribeiro Duarte Guedes, Mônica Maria Crespo, Maria Alice Varjal de Melo-Santos and Maria Helena Neves Lobo Silva-Filha

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:379

    Content type: Research

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  5. Ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) could accelerate malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion. This study was performed to characterize the bionomics of Anopheles in Surat Thani province, Thailan...

    Authors: Narenrit Wamaket, Oranicha Khamprapa, Sittinont Chainarin, Panisa Thamsawet, Ubolrat Ninsaeng, Suttipong Thongsalee, Veerast Suwan, Jira Sakolvaree, Ratree Takhampunya, Silas A. Davidson, Patrick W. McCardle, Patiwat Sa-angchai, Mavuto Mukaka, Kirakorn Kiattibutr, Amnat Khamsiriwatchara, Wang Nguitragool…

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:378

    Content type: Research

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  6. Aedes mosquitoes are important invasive species contributing to the spread of chikungunya, dengue fever, yellow fever, zika virus, and other dangerous vector-borne diseases. Aedes albopictus is native to southeas...

    Authors: Jiyeong Shin and Jongwoo Jung

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:377

    Content type: Research

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  7. Active surveillance aimed at the early detection of invasive mosquito species is usually focused on seaports and airports as points of entry, and along road networks as dispersion paths. In a number of cases, ...

    Authors: Roger Eritja, Sarah Delacour-Estrella, Ignacio Ruiz-Arrondo, Mikel A. González, Carlos Barceló, Ana L. García-Pérez, Javier Lucientes, Miguel Á. Miranda and Frederic Bartumeus

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:375

    Content type: Research

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  8. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodiae) in the Republic of Moldova have been understudied for decades. Our study provides a first update on their occurrence, species composition and bloodmeal sources aft...

    Authors: Tatiana Șuleșco, Ozge Erisoz Kasap, Petr Halada, Gizem Oğuz, Dimian Rusnac, Marketa Gresova, Bulent Alten, Petr Volf and Vit Dvorak

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:371

    Content type: Research

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  9. Dengue suppression often relies on control of the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, through applications of insecticides of which the pyrethroid group has played a dominant role. Insecticide resistance is prevalent...

    Authors: Nancy M. Endersby-Harshman, AboElgasim Ali, Basim Alhumrani, Mohammed Abdullah Alkuriji, Mohammed B. Al-Fageeh, Abdulaziz Al-Malik, Mohammed S. Alsuabeyl, Samia Elfekih and Ary A. Hoffmann

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:361

    Content type: Research

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  10. A small number of human cases of the zoonotic malaria Plasmodium knowlesi have been reported in Palawan Island, the Philippines. Identification of potential vector species and their bionomics is crucial for under...

    Authors: Richard Paul B. Malijan, Frank Mechan, Jessie C. Braganza Jr, Kristelle Mae R. Valle, Ferdinand V. Salazar, Majhalia M. Torno, Wilfredo E. Aure, Brian A. Bacay, Fe Esperanza Espino, Stephen J. Torr, Kimberly M. Fornace, Chris Drakeley and Heather M. Ferguson

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:357

    Content type: Research

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  11. Direct membrane feeding assays (DMFA) are an important tool to study parasite transmission to mosquitoes. Mosquito feeding rates in these artificial systems require optimization, as there are a number of facto...

    Authors: Lincoln Timinao, Rebecca Vinit, Michelle Katusele, Louis Schofield, Thomas R. Burkot and Stephan Karl

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:356

    Content type: Research

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  12. Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of Leishmania spp. At least 27 species of sand flies have been recorded in Thailand. Although human leishmaniasis cases in Thailand are mainly imported, autochthonous leishmani...

    Authors: Orawan Phuphisut, Chanyapat Nitatsukprasert, Nattaphol Pathawong, Boonsong Jaichapor, Arissara Pongsiri, Poom Adisakwattana and Alongkot Ponlawat

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:352

    Content type: Research

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  13. The Culicoides obsoletus species complex (henceforth ‘Obsoletus complex’) is implicated in the transmission of several arboviruses that can cause severe disease in livestock, such as bluetongue, African horse sic...

    Authors: Cecilia Aguilar-Vega, Belén Rivera, Javier Lucientes, Isabel Gutiérrez-Boada and José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:351

    Content type: Research

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  14. Malaria control primarily depends on two vector control strategies: indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Both IRS and LLIN target indoor-biting mosquitoes. However,...

    Authors: Takalani I. Makhanthisa, Leo Braack and Heike Lutermann

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:349

    Content type: Research

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  15. Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have played an important role in reducing the global malaria burden since 2000. They are a core prevention tool used widely by people at risk of malaria. The Vector Contr...

    Authors: Cyntia-Muriel Y. Clegban, Soromane Camara, A. Alphonsine Koffi, Ludovic P. Ahoua Alou, Jean-Paul Kabran Kouame, A. Fernand Koffi, Philippe K. Kouassi, Nicolas Moiroux and Cédric Pennetier

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:347

    Content type: Research

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  16. Improving the knowledge and understanding of the environmental determinants of malaria vector abundance at fine spatiotemporal scales is essential to design locally tailored vector control intervention. This w...

    Authors: Paul Taconet, Angélique Porciani, Dieudonné Diloma Soma, Karine Mouline, Frédéric Simard, Alphonsine Amanan Koffi, Cedric Pennetier, Roch Kounbobr Dabiré, Morgan Mangeas and Nicolas Moiroux

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:345

    Content type: Research

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  17. The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic of 2015/2016 spread throughout numerous countries. It emerged in mainland Latin America and spread to neighboring islands, including the Caribbean island of Barbados. Recent stud...

    Authors: J. Thannesberger, N. Rascovan, A. Eisenmann, I. Klymiuk, C. Zittra, H. P. Fuehrer, T. Scantlebury-Manning, M. Gittens-St.Hilaire, S. Austin, R. C. Landis and C. Steininger

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:343

    Content type: Research

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  18. There is a paucity of recent data and knowledge on mosquito diversity and potential vectors of arboviruses in South Africa, with most of the available data dating back to the 1950s–1970s. Aedes and Culex species ...

    Authors: M. M. Guarido, M. A. Riddin, T. Johnson, L. E. O. Braack, M. Schrama, E. E. Gorsich, B. D. Brooke, A. P. G. Almeida and Marietjie Venter

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:339

    Content type: Research

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  19. Clusters of sex-specific loci are predicted to shape the boundaries of the M/m sex-determination locus of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti, but the identities of these genes are not known. Identification ...

    Authors: Keshava Mysore, Longhua Sun, Joseph B. Roethele, Ping Li, Jessica Igiede, Joi K. Misenti and Molly Duman-Scheel

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:338

    Content type: Research

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  20. Malaria control in Kenya is based on case management and vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). However, the development of insecticide resistance compr...

    Authors: Pauline Winnie Orondo, Steven G. Nyanjom, Harrysone Atieli, John Githure, Benyl M. Ondeto, Kevin O. Ochwedo, Collince J. Omondi, James W. Kazura, Ming-Chieh Lee, Guofa Zhou, Daibin Zhong, Andrew K. Githeko and Guiyun Yan

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:335

    Content type: Research

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  21. Aedes albopictus is a very invasive mosquito, which has recently colonized tropical and temperate regions worldwide. Of concern is its role in the spread of emerging or re-emerging mosquito-borne diseases. Ae. al...

    Authors: Patricio Artigas, Marta Reguera-Gomez, María Adela Valero, David Osca, Raquel da Silva Pacheco, María Goreti Rosa-Freitas, Teresa Fernandes Silva-do-Nascimento, Claudia Paredes-Esquivel, Javier Lucientes, Santiago Mas-Coma and María Dolores Bargues

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:333

    Content type: Research

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  22. Mosquitoes of the genus Aedes are the main vectors of many viruses, e.g. dengue and Zika, which affect millions of people each year and for which there are limited treatment options. Understanding how Aedes mosqu...

    Authors: Anton Spadar, Jody E. Phelan, Ernest Diez Benavente, Monica Campos, Lara Ferrero Gomez, Fady Mohareb, Taane G. Clark and Susana Campino

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:332

    Content type: Research

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  23. Although American crows are a key indicator species for West Nile virus (WNV) and mount among the highest viremias reported for any host, the importance of crows in the WNV transmission cycle has been called i...

    Authors: Sarah S. Wheeler, Conor C. Taff, William K. Reisen and Andrea K. Townsend

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:331

    Content type: Research

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  24. Longitudinal monitoring of outdoor-biting malaria vector populations is becoming increasingly important in understanding the dynamics of residual malaria transmission. However, the human landing catch (HLC), t...

    Authors: Bernard Abong’o, John E. Gimnig, Bradley Longman, Tobias Odongo, Celestine Wekesa, Amos Webwile, Benjamin Oloo, Mercy Nduta, Margaret Muchoki, Diana Omoke, Daniel Wacira, Kevin Opondo, Eric Ochomo, Stephen Munga, Martin J. Donnelly and Richard M. Oxborough

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:320

    Content type: Research

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  25. Dengue fever is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in Southeast Asia. Insecticides remain the most effective vector control approach for Aedes mosquitoes. Four main classes of insecticides are widely...

    Authors: Soon Jian Gan, Yong Qi Leong, Muhammad Fakrul Hakim bin Barhanuddin, Siew Tung Wong, Shew Fung Wong, Joon Wah Mak and Rohani Binti Ahmad

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:315

    Content type: Review

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  26. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is responsible for the transmission of several medically important arthropod-borne viruses, including multiple serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4). Competition within the...

    Authors: M. Novelo, M. D. Audsley and E. A. McGraw

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:314

    Content type: Research

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  27. Diseases transmitted by invasive Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes are public health issues in the tropics and subtropics. Understanding the ecology of mosquito vectors is essential for the developmen...

    Authors: Carolina Camargo, Catalina Alfonso-Parra, Sebastián Díaz, Diego F. Rincon, Luis Felipe Ramírez-Sánchez, Juliana Agudelo, Luisa M. Barrientos, Sara Villa-Arias and Frank W. Avila

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:312

    Content type: Research

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  28. Mosquito control has the potential to significantly reduce malaria burden on a region, but to influence public health policy must also show cost-effectiveness. Gaps in our knowledge of mosquito population dyna...

    Authors: Aaron L. Morris, Azra Ghani and Neil Ferguson

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:311

    Content type: Research

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  29. Culicoides obsoletus (s.l.) is the most abundant Culicoides species in northern Europe and an important vector of bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus. Nevertheless, information on its subadult life stages re...

    Authors: Claudia Van den Eynde, Charlotte Sohier, Severine Matthijs and Nick De Regge

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:300

    Content type: Research

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  30. The feeding behavior of bloodsucking insects determines the transmission, distribution, host spectrum and evolution of blood parasites in the wild. Conventional wisdom suggests that some vector groups (e.g. bl...

    Authors: Nayden Chakarov, Jesús Veiga, Ignacio Ruiz-Arrondo and Francisco Valera

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:298

    Content type: Research

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  31. Glossina (tsetse flies) biologically transmit trypanosomes that infect both humans and animals. Knowledge of their distribution patterns is a key element to better understand the transmission dynamics of trypanos...

    Authors: Richard S. Gashururu, Samuel M. Githigia, Methode N. Gasana, Richard Habimana, Ndichu Maingi, Giuliano Cecchi, Massimo Paone, Weining Zhao, Daniel K. Masiga and James Gashumba

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:294

    Content type: Research

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  32. African trypanosomiases are vector-borne diseases that affect humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. Although data have been collected on tsetse fauna as well as trypanosome infections in tsetse flies and...

    Authors: Djoukzoumka Signaboubo, Vincent Khan Payne, Ibrahim Mahamat Alhadj Moussa, Hassane Mahamat Hassane, Petra Berger, Soerge Kelm and Gustave Simo

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:293

    Content type: Research

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  33. Sand flies are principal vectors of the protozoan parasites Leishmania spp. and are widely distributed in all warmer regions of the world, including the Mediterranean parts of Europe. In Central European countrie...

    Authors: Edwin Kniha, Markus Milchram, Vít Dvořák, Petr Halada, Adelheid G. Obwaller, Wolfgang Poeppl, Gerhard Mooseder, Petr Volf and Julia Walochnik

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:291

    Content type: Research

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  34. Reunion Island regularly faces outbreaks of bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic diseases, two insect-borne orbiviral diseases of ruminants. Hematophagous midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)...

    Authors: Yannick Grimaud, Annelise Tran, Samuel Benkimoun, Floriane Boucher, Olivier Esnault, Catherine Cêtre-Sossah, Eric Cardinale, Claire Garros and Hélène Guis

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:288

    Content type: Research

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  35. Traditional malaria vector sampling techniques bias collections towards female mosquitoes. Comprehensive understanding of vector dynamics requires balanced vector sampling of both males and females. Male mosqu...

    Authors: Krystal Birungi, Danspaid P. Mabuka, Victor Balyesima, Annet Namukwaya, Elinor W. Chemoges, Sylvia Kiwuwa-Muyingo, C. Matilda Collins, Frederic Tripet and Jonathan K. Kayondo

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:281

    Content type: Research

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  36. Botanical substances such as essential oils (EOs) have demonstrated insecticidal properties and are a valid option for vector control. However, free EOs are unreliable as mosquito larvicides due their easy deg...

    Authors: Bruno Gomes, Huarlen Ogélio, Fabiane Brant, Camila Jesus Pereira-Pinto, Michael J. Workman, Monique Costa, José Bento Pereira Lima, Ademir Jesus Martins, Marcelo Ramalho-Ortigao, Ravi Durvasula, Ivy Hurwitz, Mariana Rocha David and Fernando Ariel Genta

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:272

    Content type: Research

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  37. Zoological gardens contain unique configurations of exotic and endemic animals and plants that create a diverse range of developing sites and potential sources of blood meals for local mosquitoes. This may imp...

    Authors: Arturo Hernandez-Colina, Merit Gonzalez-Olvera, Emily Lomax, Freya Townsend, Amber Maddox, Jenny C. Hesson, Kenneth Sherlock, Dawn Ward, Lindsay Eckley, Mark Vercoe, Javier Lopez and Matthew Baylis

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:249

    Content type: Research

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  38. Malaria vector control approaches that rely on mosquito releases such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) and suppression or replacement strategies relying on genetically modified mosquitoes (GMM) depend on ...

    Authors: Nwamaka Oluchukwu Akpodiete and Frédéric Tripet

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:268

    Content type: Research

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  39. The human landing catch (HLC) measures human exposure to mosquito bites and evaluates the efficacy of vector control tools. However, it may expose volunteers to potentially infected mosquitoes. The mosquito el...

    Authors: Mgeni M. Tambwe, Adam Saddler, Ummi Abdul Kibondo, Rajabu Mashauri, Katharina S. Kreppel, Nicodem J. Govella and Sarah J. Moore

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:265

    Content type: Research

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  40. Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) with an urban transmission cycle that primarily involves humans and Aedes aegypti. Evidence suggests that the evolution of some arboviruses is constrained...

    Authors: Lourdes G. Talavera-Aguilar, Reyes A. Murrieta, Sungmin Kiem, Rosa C. Cetina-Trejo, Carlos M. Baak-Baak, Gregory D. Ebel, Bradley J. Blitvich and Carlos Machain-Williams

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:261

    Content type: Research

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  41. The direct toxicological impact of insecticides on vector mosquitoes has been well emphasized; however, behavioural responses such as excito-repellency and physical avoidance as a result of insecticide exposur...

    Authors: Sunil Dhiman, Kavita Yadav, B. N. Acharya, Raj Kumar Ahirwar and D. Sukumaran

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:259

    Content type: Research

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  42. Malaria vector control has been implemented chiefly through indoor interventions targeting primary vectors resulting in population declines—pointing to a possible greater proportional contribution to transmiss...

    Authors: Amine M. Mustapha, Susan Musembi, Anthony K. Nyamache, Maxwell G. Machani, Jackline Kosgei, Lucy Wamuyu, Eric Ochomo and Neil F. Lobo

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:252

    Content type: Research

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  43. West Nile (WNV) and Usutu (USUV) are emerging vector-borne zoonotic flaviviruses. They are antigenically very similar, sharing the same life cycle with birds as amplification host, Culicidae as vector, and man...

    Authors: Paola Scaramozzino, Andrea Carvelli, Gianpaolo Bruni, Giuseppina Cappiello, Francesco Censi, Adele Magliano, Giuseppe Manna, Ida Ricci, Pasquale Rombolà, Federico Romiti, Francesca Rosone, Marcello Giovanni Sala, Maria Teresa Scicluna, Stefania Vaglio and Claudio De Liberato

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:243

    Content type: Short report

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  44. Environmental disturbance, deforestation and socioeconomic factors all affect malaria incidence in tropical and subtropical endemic areas. Deforestation is the major driver of habitat loss and fragmentation, w...

    Authors: Tatiane M. P. Oliveira, Gabriel Z. Laporta, Eduardo S. Bergo, Leonardo Suveges Moreira Chaves, José Leopoldo F. Antunes, Sara A. Bickersmith, Jan E. Conn, Eduardo Massad and Maria Anice Mureb Sallum

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:236

    Content type: Research

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  45. The pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes to humans and animals cause several emerging and resurgent infectious diseases. Increasing insecticide resistance requires rational action to control the target vector p...

    Authors: Xiaoshan Yang, Yang Xu, Qi Yin, Hongbo Zhang, Haitao Yin, Yan Sun, Lei Ma, Dan Zhou and Bo Shen

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:234

    Content type: Research

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  46. Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, but is not endemic in all areas where this vector is found. For example, the relatively sparse distribution of cases in West Afri...

    Authors: Michael Amoa-Bosompem, Daisuke Kobayashi, Kentaro Itokawa, Katsunori Murota, Astri Nur Faizah, Faustus Akankperiwen Azerigyik, Takaya Hayashi, Mitsuko Ohashi, Joseph H. Kofi Bonney, Samuel Dadzie, Cuong Chi Tran, Phong Vu Tran, Ryosuke Fujita, Yoshihide Maekawa, Shinji Kasai, Shoji Yamaoka…

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:228

    Content type: Research

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  47. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a recently emerged coronavirus that is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 in humans is characteriz...

    Authors: Velmurugan Balaraman, Barbara S. Drolet, Dana N. Mitzel, William C. Wilson, Jeana Owens, Natasha N. Gaudreault, David A. Meekins, Dashzeveg Bold, Jessie D. Trujillo, Leela E. Noronha, Juergen A. Richt and Dana Nayduch

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:214

    Content type: Research

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