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Dipteran vectors and associated diseases

Subject Editors 
Fredros Okumu, Ifakara Health Institute, Tanzania 
Marco Pombi, La Sapienza University of Rome, Italy

Associate Editors

Dr. Norbert Becker, PhD, University of Heidelberg, Germany
Gioia Bongiorno, PhD, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Italy
Luciano V. Cosme, PhD, Yale University, USA
Sara Epis, PhD, University of Milan, Italy
Josiane Etang, PhD, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany
Claudia Fortuna, PhD, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Italy
Bruno Gomes da Silva, PhD, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Brazil
Camila González Rosas, PhD, Universidad de los Andes, Colombia
Basile Kamgang, PhD, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine/OCEAC, Cameroon
N. Pradeep Kumar, PhD, lCMR - Vector Control Research Centre, India, (Emeritus)      
Camila Lorenz, PhD, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil
Marta Maia, PhD, University of Oxford, UK
Ademir Martins, PhD, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Brazil
Pie Müller, PhD, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Switzerland
Ellie Sherrard-Smith, PhD, Imperial College London, UK
Sibao Wang, PhD, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Charles Wondji, PhD, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, UK

The Dipteran vectors and associated disease section publishes studies relating to the systematics, phylogenetics, identification (including new species descriptions), population genetics, bionomics, ecology, distribution, predictive mapping, diagnostics, surveillance and control of dipteran vectors and their associated diseases, particularly Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Glossina, Simulium, Culicoides and phlebotomines.

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  1. The excessive use of synthetic insecticides is responsible for many cases of resistance in insects. Therefore, the use of natural molecules of ecological interest with insecticidal properties is an alternative...

    Authors: Roméo Barnabé Bohounton, Luc Salako Djogbénou, Oswald Yédjinnavênan Djihinto, Oronce Sedjro-Ludolphe Dedome, Pierre Marie Sovegnon, Bruno Barea, Aristide Adomou, Pierre Villeneuve and Fidèle Paul Tchobo
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:518
  2. Irrigation schemes may result in subsequent changes in malaria disease dynamics. Understanding the mechanisms and effects of irrigation on malaria vector bionomics and transmission intensity is essential to de...

    Authors: Werissaw Haileselassie, Endalew Zemene, Ming-Chieh Lee, Daibin Zhong, Guofa Zhou, Behailu Taye, Alemayehu Dagne, Wakgari Deressa, James W. Kazura, Guiyun Yan and Delenasaw Yewhalaw
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:516

    The Correction to this article has been published in Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:579

  3. The surveillance and control of mosquito-borne diseases is dependent upon understanding the bionomics and distribution of the vectors. Most studies of mosquito assemblages describe species abundance, richness ...

    Authors: Boni F. Sebayang, Tanya L. Russell, Kyran M. Staunton, Michael Townsend, Christopher Paton, Tovi Lehmann and Thomas R. Burkot
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:515
  4. Wild populations of Anopheles mosquitoes are generally thought to mate outdoors in swarms, although once colonized, they also mate readily inside laboratory cages. This study investigated whether the malaria vect...

    Authors: Ismail H. Nambunga, Betwel J. Msugupakulya, Emmanuel E. Hape, Issa H. Mshani, Najat F. Kahamba, Gustav Mkandawile, Daniel M. Mabula, Rukiyah M. Njalambaha, Emmanuel W. Kaindoa, Letus L. Muyaga, Marie R. G. Hermy, Frederic Tripet, Heather M. Ferguson, Halfan S. Ngowo and Fredros O. Okumu
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:514
  5. The emergence of the Asian invasive malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi, has been identified in Khartoum, the capital city of Sudan. This is the first report that confirms the geographical expansion of this urban...

    Authors: Ayman Ahmed, Rua Khogali, Mohammed-Ahmed B. Elnour, Ryo Nakao and Bashir Salim
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:511

    The Correction to this article has been published in Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:562

  6. African trypanosomiasis, which is mainly transmitted by tsetse flies (Glossina spp.), is a threat to public health and a significant hindrance to animal production. Tools that can reduce tsetse densities and inte...

    Authors: Stella Gachoki, Thomas Groen, Anton Vrieling, Michael Okal, Andrew Skidmore and Daniel Masiga
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:506
  7. Zika virus (ZIKV) is transmitted to humans primarily by Aedes aegypti. Previous studies on Ae. aegypti from Jiegao (JG) and Mengding (MD) in Yunnan province, China have shown that these mosquitoes are able to tra...

    Authors: Chunling Zhu, Yuting Jiang, Qianghui Zhang, Jian Gao, Chaojie Li, Chunxiao Li, Yande Dong, Dan Xing, Hengduan Zhang, Teng Zhao, Xiaoxia Guo and Tongyan Zhao
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:504
  8. Bats are hosts for many ectoparasites and act as reservoirs for several infectious agents, some of which exhibit zoonotic potential. Here, species of bats and bat flies were identified and screened for microor...

    Authors: Haeseung Lee, Min-Goo Seo, Seung-Hun Lee, Jae-Ku Oem, Seon-Hee Kim, Hyesung Jeong, Yongkwan Kim, Weon-Hwa Jheong, Oh-Deog Kwon and Dongmi Kwak
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:503
  9. Aedes albopictus is a vector of major arboviral diseases and a primary pest in tropical and temperate regions of China. In most cities of China, the current monitoring system for the spread of Ae. albopictus is b...

    Authors: Yibin Zhou, Hongxia Liu, Peien Leng, Jiang Zhu, Shenjun Yao, Yiyi Zhu and Huanyu Wu
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:501
  10. Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika pose a significant challenge to health systems in countries they affect, especially countries with less developed healthcare systems. Therefor...

    Authors: Vaitiare Mulderij-Jansen, Izzy Gerstenbluth, Ashley Duits, Adriana Tami and Ajay Bailey
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:500
  11. Anopheles sinensis is a dominant vector for malaria transmission in Asian countries. Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) mutation-mediated knock-down resistance (kdr) has developed in many A. sinensis populations...

    Authors: Ruoyao Ni, Nian Liu, Mei Li, Weiping Qian and Xinghui Qiu
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:499
  12. The malaria vector Anopheles minimus has been influenced by external stresses affecting the survival rate and vectorial capacity of the population. Since An. minimus habitats have continuously undergone ecologica...

    Authors: Kamonchanok Bunmee, Urusa Thaenkham, Naowarat Saralamba, Alongkot Ponlawat, Daibin Zhong, Liwang Cui, Jetsumon Sattabongkot and Patchara Sriwichai
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:496
  13. Insecticide resistance—and especially pyrethroid resistance—is a major challenge for vector control in public health. The use of insecticide mixtures utilizing alternative modes of action, as well as new formu...

    Authors: Hang Ngoc Bao Luong, Arunas Damijonaitis, Ralf Nauen, John Vontas and Sebastian Horstmann
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:495
  14. In Hokkaido, northern island of Japan, at least seven cases of falciparum malaria were reported by 1951. A survey conducted at that time was unsuccessful in implicating any mosquito species as the possible vec...

    Authors: Kyoko Sawabe, Nozomi Imanishi-Kobayashi, Yoshihide Maekawa, Yukiko Higa, Kyeong Soon Kim, Keita Hoshino, Yoshio Tsuda, Toshihiko Hayashi, Naoko Nihei, Kenji Takai, Takeshi Kurihara and Mutsuo Kobayashi
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:494
  15. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are important vectors of human diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, and zika. In Sri Lanka, they have been responsible for transmitting dengue virus. One of the most important pa...

    Authors: Thilini Chathurika Weeraratne, S. H. P. Parakrama Karunaratne, Lisa Reimer, W. A. Priyanka P. de Silva and Charles S. Wondji
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:493
  16. Bluetongue is a serious disease of ruminants caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV). BTV is transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp.). Serological evidence from livestock and the presence of at least one compe...

    Authors: Sarsenbay K. Abdrakhmanov, Kanatzhan K. Beisembayev, Akmetzhan A. Sultanov, Yersyn Y. Mukhanbetkaliyev, Ablaikhan S. Kadyrov, Altay Y. Ussenbayev, Aigerim Y. Zhakenova and Paul R. Torgerson
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:491
  17. The global impact of Zika virus in Latin America has drawn renewed attention to circulating mosquito-borne viruses in this region, such as dengue and chikungunya. Our objective was to assess socio-ecological f...

    Authors: Benoit Talbot, Beate Sander, Varsovia Cevallos, Camila González, Denisse Benítez, Claudio Carissimo, María C. Carrasquilla Ferro, Neris Gauto, Sergio Litwiñiuk, Karen López, Mario I. Ortiz, Patricio Ponce, Stephany D. Villota, Fabian Zelaya, Mauricio Espinel, Jianhong Wu…
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:482
  18. Reproductive containment provides an opportunity to implement a staged-release strategy for genetic control of malaria vectors, in particular allowing predictions about the spread and persistence of (self-limi...

    Authors: Adrien Ickowicz, Scott D. Foster, Geoffrey R. Hosack and Keith R. Hayes
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:480
  19. Besides feeding on blood, females of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu lato readily feed on natural sources of plant sugars. The impact of toxic secondary phytochemicals contained in plant-derived sugars...

    Authors: Domonbabele F. D. S. Hien, Prisca S. L. Paré, Amanda Cooper, Benjamin K. Koama, Edwige Guissou, Koudraogo B. Yaméogo, Rakiswendé S. Yerbanga, Iain W. Farrell, Jean B. Ouédraogo, Olivier Gnankiné, Rickard Ignell, Anna Cohuet, Roch K. Dabiré, Philip C. Stevenson and Thierry Lefèvre
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:479
  20. In a countrywide study aiming to update the knowledge on diversity of sand fly species in Romania, a sand fly population was observed in an isolated system of cave microhabitats. The caves are located in the p...

    Authors: Cristina Daniela Cazan, Cintia Horváth, Luciana Cătălina Panait, Daniela Porea, Mihai Marinov, Vasile Alexe and Andrei Daniel Mihalca
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:476
  21. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) caused by Leishmania donovani (LD) is a skin disorder that often appears after treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients. PKDL patients are potential reservoirs ...

    Authors: Md Anik Ashfaq Khan, Khaledul Faisal, Rajashree Chowdhury, Rupen Nath, Prakash Ghosh, Debashis Ghosh, Faria Hossain, Ahmed Abd El Wahed and Dinesh Mondal
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:465
  22. While insecticide-based vector control can effectively target vector species in areas of high malaria endemicity, such as Anopheles gambiae in Africa, residual disease transmission can occur. Understanding the po...

    Authors: Alima Qureshi and John B. Connolly
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:462
  23. Vector-borne diseases are a major cause of disease burden in Guayaquil, Ecuador, especially arboviruses spread by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Understanding which household characteristics and risk factors lead to h...

    Authors: Thien-An Ha, Tomás M. León, Karina Lalangui, Patricio Ponce, John M. Marshall and Varsovia Cevallos
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:458
  24. Behavioural shifts in the canonical location and timing of biting have been reported in natural populations of anopheline malaria vectors following the implementation of insecticide-based indoor vector control...

    Authors: Amadou S. Traoré, Angélique Porciani, Nicolas Moiroux, Roch K. Dabiré, Frédéric Simard, Carlo Costantini and Karine Mouline
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:457
  25. The Anopheles hyrcanus group, which includes 25 species, is widely distributed in the Oriental and Palaearctic regions. Given the difficulty in identifying cryptic or sibling species based on their morphological ...

    Authors: Canglin Zhang, Rui Yang, Linbo Wu, Chunhai Luo, Xiaofang Guo, Yan Deng, Hongning Zhou and Yilong Zhang
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:454
  26. Despite the medical importance of mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles in the transmission of malaria and other human diseases, its phylogenetic relationships are not settled, and the characteristics of mitochondria...

    Authors: Jing Guo, Zhen-Tian Yan, Wen-Bo Fu, Huan Yuan, Xu-Dong Li and Bin Chen
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:452
  27. For over a decade, monitoring of West Nile virus (WNV) in Germany has consisted of a bird monitoring programme as well as a mosquito-based surveillance programme employing CO2-baited encephalitis vector surveilla...

    Authors: Noelle Fynmore, Renke Lühken, Heike Maisch, Tina Risch, Sabine Merz, Konstantin Kliemke, Ute Ziegler, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit and Norbert Becker
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:449
  28. An entomological study was conducted in the Canaraua Fetii Special Protection Area in the Dobrogea region, South-Eastern Romania. Four sand fly species were recorded at this location between 1968 and 1970: Phlebo...

    Authors: Cristina Daniela Cazan, Attila D. Sándor, Ozge Erisoz Kasap, Bulent Alten and Andrei Daniel Mihalca
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:448
  29. Dengue, Zika and chikungunya are arboviruses of significant public health importance that are transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. In Colombia, where dengue is hyperendemic, and where chi...

    Authors: María C. Carrasquilla, Mario I. Ortiz, Cielo León, Silvia Rondón, Manisha A. Kulkarni, Benoit Talbot, Beate Sander, Heriberto Vásquez, Juan M. Cordovez and Camila González
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:446
  30. Larvicides are typically applied to fixed and findable mosquito breeding sites, such as fish farming ponds used in commercial aquaculture, to kill immature forms and thereby reduce the size of adult malaria ve...

    Authors: Pablo S. Fontoura, Marcos F. Silva, Anderson S. da Costa, Francismar S. Ribeiro, Marcílio S. Ferreira, Simone Ladeia-Andrade, Juliana Tonini, Priscila T. Rodrigues, Marcia C. Castro and Marcelo U. Ferreira
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:445
  31. The arthropod-borne Mayaro virus (MAYV) causes “Mayaro fever,” a disease of medical significance, primarily affecting individuals in permanent contact with forested areas in tropical South America. Recently, M...

    Authors: Tiago Souza Salles, Marcelo Damião Ferreira Meneses, Lucio Ayres Caldas, Thayane Encarnação Sá-Guimarães, Danielle M. de Oliveira, José A. Ventura, Renata Campos Azevedo, Ricardo M. Kuster, Márcia Regina Soares and Davis Fernandes Ferreira
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:443
  32. Aedes vigilax is one of the most significant arbovirus vector and pest species in Australia’s coastal regions. Occurring in multiple countries, this mosquito species occurs as a species complex which has been sep...

    Authors: Peter T. Mee, Shani Wong, Karen Brown and Stacey E. Lynch
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:434
  33. The midgut microbiota of mosquitoes maintain basal immune activity and immune priming. In recent years, scientists have focused on the use of microbial communities for vector control interventions. In the pres...

    Authors: Koshila Ranasinghe, Nayana Gunathilaka, Deepika Amarasinghe, Wasana Rodrigo and Lahiru Udayanga
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:433
  34. Wolbachia pipientis are endosymbiotic bacteria present in a large proportion of terrestrial arthropods. The species is known to sometimes affect the ability of its host to transmit vector-borne pathogens. Central...

    Authors: Alexander Bergman and Jenny C. Hesson
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:428
  35. Malaria is often persistent in communities surrounded by mosquito breeding habitats. Anopheles gambiae sensu lato exploit a variety of aquatic habitats, but the biotic determinants of its preferences are poorly u...

    Authors: Hudson Onen, Robinson Odong, Moses Chemurot, Frédéric Tripet and Jonathan K. Kayondo
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:420
  36. The mosquito Aedes albopictus is an important vector for many pathogens. Understanding the virome in Ae. albopictus is critical for assessing the risk of disease transmission, implementation of vector control mea...

    Authors: Wenqiao He, Yanxia Chen, Xiru Zhang, Mingji Peng, Da Xu, Huan He, Yuhan Gao, Junlin Chen, Jiarui Zhang, Zhiyu Li and Qing Chen
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:415
  37. Dengue is a significant public health issue that is caused by Aedes spp. mosquitoes. The current vector control methods are unable to effectively reduce Aedes populations and thus fail to decrease dengue transmis...

    Authors: Ahmad Mohiddin Mohd Ngesom, Anis Ahmad Razi, Nur Syahirah Azizan, Nazni Wasi Ahmad, Asmalia Md Lasim, Yanfeng Liang, David Greenhalgh, Jasmine Chia Siew Min, Mazrura Sahani, Rozita Hod and Hidayatulfathi Othman
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:413
  38. Culex (Culex) tritaeniorhynchus is an important vector of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) affecting feral pigs, native mammals and humans. The mosquito species is widely distributed throughout Southeast Asia, A...

    Authors: Bryan D. Lessard, Nina Kurucz, Juanita Rodriguez, Jane Carter and Christopher M. Hardy
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:411
  39. Aedes albopictus is the primary vector of dengue fever in China. This mosquito species has a wide distribution range in China and can be found in the tropical climate zones of southern provinces through to temper...

    Authors: Hanming Chen, Qiuming Zhou, Haowei Dong, Hao Yuan, Jie Bai, Jingpeng Gao, Feng Tao, Hui Ma, Xiangyu Li, Heng Peng and Yajun Ma
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:406
  40. The emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases are a cause for worldwide concern. The introduction of Zika and Chikungunya diseases in the Americas has exposed unforeseen medical and logistical challeng...

    Authors: Bárbara Batista Salgado, Fábio Carmona de Jesus Maués, Renato Lemos Pereira, Jannifer Oliveira Chiang, Maria Nazaré de Oliveira Freitas, Milene Silveira Ferreira, Lívia Caricio Martins, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos, Christian Ganoza and Pritesh Lalwani
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:403
  41. The human botfly, Dermatobia hominis, is a common cause of furuncular myiasis in dogs in Latin America. Lesions can be single or multiple, each harboring an individual larva, presented as an erythematous nodule t...

    Authors: Paula A. Andriotti, Clarissa P. Souza, Priscila C. Oliveira, Rodrigo C. Melo, Guilherme G. Verocai and Julio I. Fernandes
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:401
  42. Tabanids are a neglected group of haematophagous dipterans despite containing 4434 species, regrouped in > 144 genera. They are mechanical vectors of important pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and protoz...

    Authors: Silas L. Sevidzem, Aubin A. Koumba, Genevieve L. Yao-Acapovi and Jacques F. Mavoungou
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:392
  43. Mosquito-borne diseases affect over half of the human population globally. Multiple studies have shown that chemical insecticides are ineffective because of resistance. Therefore, environmentally safe mosquito...

    Authors: Xiaowen Fei, Yang Zhang, Lili Ding, Sha Xiao, Xiaoqing Xie, Yajun Li and Xiaodong Deng
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:387
  44. The impacts and limitations of personal protection measures against exposure to vectors of malaria and other mosquito-borne pathogens depend on behavioural interactions between humans and mosquitoes. Therefore...

    Authors: Gerry F. Killeen, April Monroe and Nicodem J. Govella
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:384
  45. Aedes aegypti can transmit arboviruses worldwide, and Bacillus thuringiensis svar. israelensis (Bti)-based larvicides represent an effective tool for controlling this species. The safety of Bti and lack of resist...

    Authors: Karine da Silva Carvalho, Duschinka Ribeiro Duarte Guedes, Mônica Maria Crespo, Maria Alice Varjal de Melo-Santos and Maria Helena Neves Lobo Silva-Filha
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:379
  46. Ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) could accelerate malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion. This study was performed to characterize the bionomics of Anopheles in Surat Thani province, Thailan...

    Authors: Narenrit Wamaket, Oranicha Khamprapa, Sittinont Chainarin, Panisa Thamsawet, Ubolrat Ninsaeng, Suttipong Thongsalee, Veerast Suwan, Jira Sakolvaree, Ratree Takhampunya, Silas A. Davidson, Patrick W. McCardle, Patiwat Sa-angchai, Mavuto Mukaka, Kirakorn Kiattibutr, Amnat Khamsiriwatchara, Wang Nguitragool…
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:378