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Dipteran vectors and associated diseases

Subject Editors 
Fredros Okumu, Ifakara Health Institute, Tanzania 
Marco Pombi, La Sapienza University of Rome, Italy

Associate Editors
Gioia Bongiorno, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Italy
Luciano V. Cosme, Yale University, USA
Josiane Etang, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany
Claudia Fortuna, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Italy
Bruno Gomes da Silva, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Brazil
Camila González Rosas, Universidad de los Andes, Colombia
Basile Kamgang, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine/OCEAC, Cameroon
Camila Lorenz, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil
Marta Maia, University of Oxford, UK
Ademir Martins, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Brazil
Pie Müller, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Switzerland
Bethan Purse, Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, UK
Ellie Sherrard-Smith, Imperial College London, UK
Sibao Wang, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Charles Wondji, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, UK

The Dipteran vectors and associated disease section publishes studies relating to the systematics, phylogenetics, identification (including new species descriptions), population genetics, bionomics, ecology, distribution, predictive mapping, diagnostics, surveillance and control of dipteran vectors and their associated diseases, particularly Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Glossina, Simulium, Culicoides and phlebotomines.

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  1. The impact of single-dose mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin for onchocerciasis on mosquito populations was investigated in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Authors: Olaitan Olamide Omitola, Cynthia Uchechukwu Umunnakwe, Adedotun Ayodeji Bayegun, Samuel Akinjide Anifowose, Hammed Oladeji Mogaji, Akinola Stephen Oluwole, Simon Nnayere Odoemene, Taiwo Sam Awolola, Adebola Adedoyin Osipitan, Sammy Olufemi Sam-Wobo and Uwem Friday Ekpo

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:212

    Content type: Research

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  2. Anopheles arabiensis is an opportunistic malaria vector that rests and feeds outdoors, circumventing current indoor vector control methods. Furthermore, this vector will readily feed on both animals and humans. T...

    Authors: Blaženka D. Letinić, Marinela Contreras, Yael Dahan-Moss, Ingrid Linnekugel, José de la Fuente and Lizette L. Koekemoer

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:209

    Content type: Research

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  3. The rapid and widespread evolution of insecticide resistance has emerged as one of the major challenges facing malaria control programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the insecticide resistance status of...

    Authors: Daniel N. Munywoki, Elizabeth D. Kokwaro, Joseph M. Mwangangi, Ephantus J. Muturi and Charles M. Mbogo

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:207

    Content type: Research

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  4. Anopheles arabiensis is a major malaria vector, recently implicated as contributing to ongoing residual malaria transmission in South Africa, which feeds and rests both indoors and outdoors. This species is, ther...

    Authors: Maria L. Kaiser, Oliver R. Wood, David Damiens, Basil D. Brooke, Lizette L. Koekemoer and Givemore Munhenga

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:205

    Content type: Research

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  5. Insecticide resistance is threatening the effectiveness of efforts to control malaria vectors in Benin. This study explores the levels and mechanisms of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae s.l. to pyrethroids.

    Authors: Hermann Watson Sagbohan, Casimir D. Kpanou, Razaki Osse, Fortuné Dagnon, Germain G. Padonou, André Aimé Sominahouin, Albert Sourou Salako, Aboubakar Sidick, Wilfried Sewade, Bruno Akinro, Saadani Ahmed, Daniel Impoinvil, Clément Agbangla and Martin Akogbeto

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:202

    Content type: Research

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  6. Infectious blood meal experiments have been frequently performed with different virus-vector combinations to assess the transmission potential of arthropod-borne (arbo)viruses. A wide variety of host blood sou...

    Authors: Sandra R. Abbo, Tessa M. Visser, Constantianus J. M. Koenraadt, Gorben P. Pijlman and Haidong Wang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:194

    Content type: Research

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  7. Understanding the ecology of larval malaria and lymphatic filariasis mosquitoes in a changing environment is important in developing effective control tools or programmes. This study characterized the breeding...

    Authors: Isaac A. Hinne, Simon K. Attah, Benedicta A. Mensah, Akua O. Forson and Yaw A. Afrane

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:193

    Content type: Research

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  8. A study conducted at the International Airport of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, with the aim of investigating the presence/absence of invasive Aedes mosquito species resulted in finding Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobal...

    Authors: Cintia Horváth, Cristina Daniela Cazan and Andrei Daniel Mihalca

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:192

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:229

  9. Plant-based mosquito control methods may use as a supplementary malaria vector control strategy. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of smoking ethno-medicinal plants on indoor density and feeding activity...

    Authors: Tekle Olbamo, Endashaw Esayas, Tizazu Gebre and Fekadu Massebo

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:190

    Content type: Research

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  10. Vector surveillance is essential in determining the geographical distribution of mosquito vectors and understanding the dynamics of malaria transmission. With the elimination of human malaria cases, knowlesi m...

    Authors: Nantha Kumar Jeyaprakasam, Sandthya Pramasivan, Jonathan Wee Kent Liew, Lun Van Low, Wan-Yusoff Wan-Sulaiman, Romano Ngui, Jenarun Jelip and Indra Vythilingam

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:184

    Content type: Research

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  11. Aedes japonicus japonicus has expanded beyond its native range and has established in multiple European countries, including Belgium. In addition to the population located at Natoye, Belgium, locally established ...

    Authors: Nathalie Smitz, Katrien De Wolf, Isra Deblauwe, Helge Kampen, Francis Schaffner, Jacobus De Witte, Anna Schneider, Ingrid Verlé, Adwine Vanslembrouck, Wouter Dekoninck, Kenny Meganck, Sophie Gombeer, Ann Vanderheyden, Marc De Meyer, Thierry Backeljau, Doreen Werner…

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:179

    Content type: Research

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  12. Malaria transmission depends on infected mosquitoes and can be controlled by transmission-blocking drugs. The recently discovered FREP1-mediated malaria transmission pathway is an excellent target to screen dr...

    Authors: Guodong Niu, Xiaohong Wang, Yue Hao, Shambhu Kandel, Guomin Niu, Raphael G. Raptis and Jun Li

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:177

    Content type: Research

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  13. Genotyping of polymorphic chromosomal inversions in malaria vectors such as An. coluzzii Coetzee & Wilkerson is important, both because they cause cryptic population structure that can mislead vector analysis and...

    Authors: Raquel Montanez‑Gonzalez, Alexandra C. Vallera, Maria Calzetta, Verena Pichler, Rachel R. Love, Moussa W. Guelbeogo, Roch K. Dabire, Marco Pombi, Carlo Costantini, Frederic Simard, Alessandra della Torre and Nora J. Besansky

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:174

    Content type: Research

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  14. Despite remarkable success obtained with current malaria vector control strategies in the last 15 years, additional innovative measures will be needed to achieve the ambitious goals for malaria control set for...

    Authors: Patricia Nicolas, Caroline Kiuru, Martin G. Wagah, Martha Muturi, Urs Duthaler, Felix Hammann, Marta Maia and Carlos Chaccour

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:172

    Content type: Research

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  15. Sichuan province is located in the southwest of China, and was previously a malaria-endemic region. Although no indigenous malaria case has been reported since 2011, the number of imported cases is on the rise...

    Authors: Weiping Qian, Nian Liu, Yan Yang, Juan Liu, Jianhan He, Zuhua Chen, Mei Li and Xinghui Qiu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:169

    Content type: Research

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  16. In 2015, an outbreak of Zika virus spread across Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Public health programs promoted vector control behaviors, including covering water storage containers with lids. Such app...

    Authors: Jessie Pinchoff, Martha Silva, Kathryn Spielman and Paul Hutchinson

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:167

    Content type: Research

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  17. Recent climate and environmental changes have resulted in the geographical expansion of Mediterranean Leishmania infantum vectors towards northern latitudes and higher altitudes in different European countries, i...

    Authors: Alice Michelutti, Federica Toniolo, Michela Bertola, Marika Grillini, Giulia Simonato, Silvia Ravagnan and Fabrizio Montarsi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:164

    Content type: Short report

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  18. The larval bionomics of Aedes across the Jaffna peninsula in northern Sri Lanka was investigated to obtain information needed for developing more effective larval source reduction measures to control endemic arbo...

    Authors: Sinnathamby N. Surendran, Tibutius T. P. Jayadas, Vaikunthavasan Thiruchenthooran, Selvarajah Raveendran, Annathurai Tharsan, Sharanga Santhirasegaram, Kokila Sivabalakrishnan, Suthakar Karunakaran, Bharathy Ponnaiah, Laksiri Gomes, Gathsaurie N. Malavige and Ranjan Ramasamy

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:162

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:218

  19. Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens) complex, which acts as a vector of viruses and is widespread and abundant worldwide, including West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and Sindbis virus, can cause serious vector...

    Authors: Xixi Li, Shengli Hu, Haitao Yin, Hongbo Zhang, Dan Zhou, Yan Sun, Lei Ma, Bo Shen and Changliang Zhu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:159

    Content type: Research

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  20. With the increasing threat of the worldwide spread of mosquito-borne infectious diseases, consumer interest in anti-mosquito textiles that protect against mosquito bites is also increasing. Accordingly, repell...

    Authors: Yasue Morimoto, Hitoshi Kawada, Kan-ya Kuramoto, Takuya Mitsuhashi, Toshinobu Saitoh and Noboru Minakawa

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:151

    Content type: Research

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  21. The spread of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors threatens the effectiveness of standard long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN). Synergist nets combine pyrethroid (Py) and piperonyl-butoxide (PBO) to enha...

    Authors: Jackline L. Martin, Franklin W. Mosha, Eliud Lukole, Mark Rowland, Jim Todd, Jacques D. Charlwood, Jacklin F. Mosha and Natacha Protopopoff

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:150

    Content type: Research

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  22. To ensure food security, sub-Saharan Africa has initiated massive water resource development projects, such as irrigated agriculture, in recent years. However, such environmental modifications affect the survi...

    Authors: Dawit Hawaria, Solomon Kibret, Assalif Demissew, Arega Tsegaye, Denekew Bitew, Guiyun Yan and Delenasaw Yewhalaw

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:142

    Content type: Research

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  23. Since their detection in 2013, Aedes aegypti has become a widespread urban pest in California. The availability of cryptic larval breeding sites in residential areas and resistance to insecticides pose significan...

    Authors: Lindsey K. Mack, Erin Taylor Kelly, Yoosook Lee, Katherine K. Brisco, Kaiyuan Victoria Shen, Aamina Zahid, Tess van Schoor, Anthony J. Cornel and Geoffrey M. Attardo

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:141

    Content type: Research

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  24. Chikungunya virus is an alphavirus, primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. In late 2017–2018, an outbreak of chikungunya occurred in Mombasa county, Kenya, and investigations were conducted to...

    Authors: Joel Lutomiah, Francis Mulwa, James Mutisya, Edith Koskei, Solomon Langat, Albert Nyunja, Hellen Koka, Samson Konongoi, Edith Chepkorir, Victor Ofula, Samuel Owaka, Fredrick Eyase and Rosemary Sang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:138

    Content type: Research

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  25. Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that has caused major health problems. Variations in dengue virus (DENV) genes are important features of epidemic outbreaks. However, the associations of DEN...

    Authors: Mengmeng Ma, Sean Wu, Zhenjian He, Lihong Yuan, Zhijun Bai, Liyun Jiang, John Marshall, Jiahai Lu, Zhicong Yang and Qinlong Jing

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:126

    Content type: Research

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  26. Aerial applications of insecticides that target adult mosquitoes are widely used to reduce transmission of West Nile virus to humans during periods of epidemic risk. However, estimates of the reduction in abun...

    Authors: Karen M. Holcomb, Robert C. Reiner and Christopher M. Barker

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:120

    Content type: Research

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  27. Most female mosquitoes are anautogenous and must blood feed on a vertebrate host to produce eggs. Prior studies show that the number of eggs females lay per clutch correlates with the volume of blood ingested ...

    Authors: Ruby E. Harrison, Mark R. Brown and Michael R. Strand

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:119

    Content type: Research

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  28. It is important to understand whether the potential impact of pyrethroid resistance on malaria control can be mitigated by switching between different pyrethroids or whether cross-resistance within this insect...

    Authors: C. L. Moyes, R. S. Lees, C. Yunta, K. J. Walker, K. Hemmings, F. Oladepo, P. A. Hancock, D. Weetman, M. J. I. Paine and H. M. Ismail

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:115

    Content type: Research

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  29. In the last two decades, recurrent epizootics of bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus have been reported in the western Palearctic region. These viruses affect domestic cattle, sheep, goats and wild rumina...

    Authors: Antoine Mignotte, Claire Garros, Simon Dellicour, Maude Jacquot, Marius Gilbert, Laetitia Gardès, Thomas Balenghien, Maxime Duhayon, Ignace Rakotoarivony, Maïa de Wavrechin and Karine Huber

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:93

    Content type: Research

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  30. Dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika are among the most important emerging infectious vector-borne diseases worldwide. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), increases in cases of dengue and outbreak...

    Authors: Francis Wat’senga Tezzo, Sylvie Fasine, Emile Manzambi Zola, Maria del Carmen Marquetti, Guillaume Binene Mbuka, Gillon Ilombe, Richard Mundeke Takasongo, Nathalie Smitz, Juan Andre Bisset, Wim Van Bortel and Veerle Vanlerberghe

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:92

    Content type: Research

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  31. The Barotse floodplains of the upper Zambezi River and its tributaries are a highly dynamic environment, with seasonal flooding and transhumance presenting a shifting mosaic of potential larval habitat and hum...

    Authors: Dónall Eoin Cross, Chris Thomas, Niall McKeown, Vincent Siaziyu, Amy Healey, Tom Willis, Douglas Singini, Francis Liywalii, Andrew Silumesii, Jacob Sakala, Mark Smith, Mark Macklin, Andy J. Hardy and Paul W. Shaw

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:91

    Content type: Research

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  32. With the rapid development and spread of resistance to insecticides among anopheline malaria vectors, the efficacy of current World Health Organization (WHO)-approved insecticides targeting these vectors is un...

    Authors: Elodie Ekoka, Surina Maharaj, Luisa Nardini, Yael Dahan-Moss and Lizette L. Koekemoer

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:86

    Content type: Review

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  33. Malaria transmission persists despite the scale-up of interventions such as long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). Understanding the entomological drivers of transmis...

    Authors: Brian Bartilol, Irene Omedo, Charles Mbogo, Joseph Mwangangi and Martin K. Rono

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:84

    Content type: Review

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  34. The guts of blood-sucking insects host a community of bacteria that can shift dramatically in response to biotic and abiotic factors. Identifying the key factors structuring these microbial communities has imp...

    Authors: Ephantus J. Muturi, Teresia M. Njoroge, Christopher Dunlap and Carla E. Cáceres

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:83

    Content type: Research

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  35. Since the late 1990s, malaria control programmes have relied extensively on mass bednet distribution and indoor residual spraying. Both interventions use pesticides and target mosquitoes coming indoors either ...

    Authors: Amadou Guindo, Patric Stephane Epopa, Sidy Doumbia, Abdoul-Azize Millogo, Brehima Diallo, Franck Adama Yao, Bilkissou Yagoure, Frederic Tripet, Abdoulaye Diabate and Mamadou B. Coulibaly

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:82

    Content type: Research

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  36. Mosquitoes are vectors for diseases such as dengue, malaria and La Crosse virus that significantly impact the human population. When multiple mosquito species are present, the competition between species may a...

    Authors: Emma Stump, Lauren M. Childs and Melody Walker

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:79

    Content type: Research

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  37. On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak to be a pandemic. As the mosquito season progressed, the understandable concern that mosquitoes c...

    Authors: Claudia Fortuna, Fabrizio Montarsi, Francesco Severini, Giulia Marsili, Luciano Toma, Antonello Amendola, Michela Bertola, Alice Michelutti, Silvia Ravagnan, Gioia Capelli, Giovanni Rezza and Marco Di Luca

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:76

    Content type: Short report

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  38. Mosquito-borne diseases are a global health problem, causing hundreds of thousands of deaths per year. Pathogens are transmitted by mosquitoes feeding on the blood of an infected host and then feeding on a new...

    Authors: Fiona Teltscher, Sophie Bouvaine, Gabriella Gibson, Paul Dyer, Jennifer Guest, Stephen Young and Richard J. Hopkins

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:75

    Content type: Research

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  39. Semi-field experiments with human landing catch (HLC) measure as the outcome are an important step in the development of novel vector control interventions against outdoor transmission of malaria since they pr...

    Authors: Adrian Denz, Margaret M. Njoroge, Mgeni M. Tambwe, Clara Champagne, Fredros Okumu, Joop J. A. van Loon, Alexandra Hiscox, Adam Saddler, Ulrike Fillinger, Sarah J. Moore and Nakul Chitnis

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:64

    Content type: Research

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  40. The rapid spread of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors and the rebound in malaria cases observed recently in some endemic areas underscore the urgent need to evaluate and deploy new effective control in...

    Authors: Dieudonné Diloma Soma, Barnabas Zogo, Domonbabele François de Sales Hien, Aristide Sawdetuo Hien, Didier Alexandre Kaboré, Mahamadi Kientega, Anicet Georges Ouédraogo, Cédric Pennetier, Alphonsine Amanan Koffi, Nicolas Moiroux and Roch Kounbobr Dabiré

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:58

    Content type: Research

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  41. Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of internationally important arboviruses and inflict biting nuisance on humans, companion animals and livestock. In temperate regions, tr...

    Authors: Laura A. Tugwell, Marion E. England, Simon Gubbins, Christopher J. Sanders, Jessica E. Stokes, Joanne Stoner, Simon P. Graham, Alison Blackwell, Karin E. Darpel and Simon Carpenter

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:55

    Content type: Research

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  42. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) are of public health concern in Merti sub-County, Kenya, but epidemiological data on transmission, vector abundance, distribution, and res...

    Authors: Barrack O. Owino, Jackline Milkah Mwangi, Steve Kiplagat, Hannah Njiriku Mwangi, Johnstone M. Ingonga, Alphine Chebet, Philip M. Ngumbi, Jandouwe Villinger, Daniel K. Masiga and Damaris Matoke-Muhia

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:53

    Content type: Research

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  43. In the 1980s and 1990s, great strides were taken towards the elimination of tsetse and animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) in Zimbabwe. However, advances in recent years have been limited. Previously freed ar...

    Authors: William Shereni, Luis Neves, Rafael Argilés, Learnmore Nyakupinda and Giuliano Cecchi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:50

    Content type: Research

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  44. The main challenge to the successful mass-rearing of the tsetse fly in insectaries, especially in Africa, is a sustainable supply of high-quality blood meals. As such, the collection of high-quality blood in l...

    Authors: Karifa Camara, Kadidiata Ilboudo, Ernest Wendemanegde Salou and Geoffrey Gimonneau

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:46

    Content type: Research

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  45. Novel malaria vector control approaches aim to combine tools for maximum protection. This study aimed to evaluate novel and re-evaluate existing putative repellent ‘push’ and attractive ‘pull’ components for m...

    Authors: Margaret Mendi Njoroge, Ulrike Fillinger, Adam Saddler, Sarah Moore, Willem Takken, Joop J. A. van Loon and Alexandra Hiscox

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:42

    Content type: Research

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  46. Despite the licensure of the world’s first dengue vaccine and the current development of additional vaccine candidates, successful Aedes control remains critical to the reduction of dengue virus transmission. To ...

    Authors: Haoyang Sun, Borame L Dickens, Daniel Richards, Janet Ong, Jayanthi Rajarethinam, Muhammad E. E. Hassim, Jue Tao Lim, L. Roman Carrasco, Joel Aik, Grace Yap, Alex R. Cook and Lee Ching Ng

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:41

    Content type: Research

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  47. Phlebotomines are a group of insects which include vectors of the Leishmania parasites that cause visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), diseases primarily affecting populations of low soci...

    Authors: Marcos Paulo Gomes Pinheiro, Cássio Lázaro Silva-Inacio, Marcel Miranda de Medeiros Silva, Paulo Sérgio Fagundes de Araújo and Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo Ximenes

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:38

    Content type: Research

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