Description of evandromyia spelunca, a new phlebotomine species of the cortelezzii complex, from a cave in Minas Gerais State, Brazil (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)
© Carvalho et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
Received: 13 April 2011
Accepted: 9 August 2011
Published: 9 August 2011
The cave fauna of the Brazil is poorly documented, and among the insects those live or frequent caves and their adjacent environments phlebotomine sand flies call for special attention because several species are vectors of pathogens among vertebrates hosts. A new species of sand fly from Minas Gerais is described based in females and males collected in a cave of the municipality of Lassance.
The morphological characters of the new species permit to include in the Evandromyia genus, cortelezzii complex. This complex consists of three species: Evandromyia corumbaensis (Galati, Nunes, Oshiro & Rego, 1989), Evandromyia cortelezzii (Brethes, 1923) and Evandromyia sallesi (Galvao & Coutinho, 1940).
The new species can be separate from the others of the cortelezzii complex through morphological characters of the male terminalia and female spermathecae.
Sand flies are responsible for transmission of the genus Leishmania among vertebrates hosts and study of this insect group is of great importance in attempts to control of leishmaniasis . In Brazil, the cave fauna of insects is poorly documented, and among the insects that live or frequent caves and their adjacent environments, phlebotomine sand flies call for special attention because several species are vectors of arboviruses and protozoa, among other parasites.
The geographical distribution of the sand flies species depends on their ability to adapt to different ecological niches. Thus, by its development in the immature stages and their feeding habits when adults, the species of sand flies are found where both larvae and adults can find appropriate environments for their development, including blood supply for females. In this way, the geographical distribution of species can be restricted to their access to a specific environment and vertebrate host. Already the occurrence of leishmaniasis is basically determined by the presence of both a susceptible vector and a host/reservoir equally susceptible to the infection .
The growing of tourism, involving a search for natural attractions such as cave exploration, demands a better knowledge of the threats to health that people may face in those new areas.
In the present investigation a new species of sand fly from Minas Gerais is described based on both genders collected in a cave in the Lassance municipality.
Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps (HP model), conducted between June 2008 to May 2010, in the cave named "Gruta Rebenta Bombas" city of Lassance, Minas Gerais state. Sand flies were mounted in Canada balsam (males) and Berlese liquid (females), measured with a binocular Olympus CH-2 microscope with the aid of a micrometer ocular and the drawings were done with the help of a camera lucida. All the measurements presented in this paper are given in micrometers. The nomenclature and classification is that proposed by Galati  and the abbreviation of the names for phlebotomine genera by Marcondes . The new species is described based on 10 females and 10 males, which were associated by their capture in the same place at the same time as well as by the association of the morphological characteristics (antennal and palpal formulas; length association of the genital filaments; pigmentation of the thorax; and other structures) that include all the specimens of both sexes in the same genus and group.
In accordance with section 8.6 of the ICZN's International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, copies of this article are deposited at the following five publicly accessible libraries: Natural History Museum, London, UK; American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA; Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia; Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
Head (Figure 1)
(370 ± 13.9; n = 10) long and 262 (261 ± 10.0; n = 10) wide. Head length/head width ratio 1.47: 1 (1.42 ± 0.08; n = 10). Clypeus 133 (129 ± 7.1; n = 10) long; clypeus length/head length ratio 0.34: 1 (0.35: 1 ± 0.02; n = 10). Eye 126 (132 ± 16.9; n = 10) long and 75 (83 ± 10.7; n = 10) wide; eye length/head length 0.33: 1 (0.36: 1 ± 0.04; n = 10). Interocular distance 119 (114 ± 6.8; n = 10). Labrum-epipharynx (LE) 218 (215 ± 5.8; n = 10). LE/head length 0.56: 1 (0.58 ± 0.01; n = 10). Labial suture forming a fork. Antenna with simple and short ascoid, not reaching the next flagellomere. Antennal formula AIII-AXV: 2 Antennomere lengths: AIII 304 (297 ± 10.0; n = 10); AIV 166 (155 ± 8.4; n = 10); AV 166 (157 ± 7.5; n = 10); AXV > AXVI (AXV > AXVI; n = 7). AIII, AIV, AV, AXII, AXIII, AXIV, AXV, AXVI with papilla; ratios: AIII/head length 0.79: 1 (0.80: 1 ± 0.04; n = 10); AIII/LE 1.39: 1 (1.38: 1 ± 0.06; n = 10). Palpal formula 18.104.22.168.5 (22.214.171.124.5; n = 10). Palpomere lengths: P1 37 (36 ± 3.3; n = 10); P2 146 (139 ± 4.1; n = 10); P3 173 (167 ± 6.0; n = 10); P4 122 (113 ± 5.7; n = 10); P5 400 (367 ± 43.6; n = 10). Newstead's spines inserted medially on palpomere 3, also present on its apical third portion.
Ventrocervical sensillae: present
sand fly of medium size, measuring ca. 2,567 (2,574 ± 260.6; n = 10) in length. Coloration as in the males holotype and paratypes.
Head (Figure 5)
(422 ± 30.6; n = 10) long and 290 (301 ± 18.0; n = 10) wide. Head length/head width ratio 1.43: 1 (1.40 ± 0.10; n = 10). Clypeus 153 (168 ± 14.0; n = 10) long; clypeus length/head length ratio 0.37: 1 (0.40: 1 ± 0.01; n = 10). Eye 133 (142 ± 10.4; n = 10) long and 92 (85 ± 9.7; n = 10) wide; eye length/head length 0.32 (0.34: 1 ± 0.03; n = 10). Interocular distance 143 (146 ± 17.0; n = 10). Labrum-epipharynx (LE) 292 (306 ± 18.4; n = 10). LE/head length 0.71: 1 (0.73 ± 0.06; n = 10). Labial suture forming a fork. Antenna with simple and long ascoid and reaching the next flagellomere. Antennal formula AIII-AXV: 2 Antennomere lengths: AIII 235 (264 ± 18.8; n = 10); AIV 122 (128 ± 7.4; n = 10); AV 122 (128 ± 7.4; n = 10); AXV > AXVI (AXV > AXVI; n = 10). AIII, AIV, AXIV, AXV and AXVI with papilla; ratios: AIII/head length 0.57: 1 (0.63: 1 ± 0.05; n = 10); AIII/LE 0.80: 1 (0.86: 1 ± 0.06; n = 10). Palpal formula 126.96.36.199.5 (188.8.131.52.5; n = 10). Palpomere lengths: P1 51 (48 ± 4.6; n = 10); P2 153 (158 ± 8.1; n = 10); P3 173 (177 ± 10.8; n = 10); P4 112 (120 ± 8.4; n = 10); P5 442 (446 ± 20.5; n = 10). The Newstead spines implanted in the median region of the third palpomere. Cibarium with four posterior (horizontal) teeth developed and individualized, not fused in their base. The anterior (vertical) teeth are present in greater number in the regions lateral of the cibarium, starting from the two sides of the cibarium, and forming an arch with about four teeth larger vertical, situated below the posterior teeth (Figure 6). Sclerotized area is well defined and the sclerotized arch is complete. Unarmed pharynx. Lacinia of the maxilla with 7-9 external teeth in a single longitudinal row.
Ventrocervical sensillae: present
Hotype male (N. 89,458) and allotype female (N. 87,358) collected respectively on 30th September 2009 and 26th June 2008 with CDC light traps, model HP, in a limestone cave named "Gruta Rebenta Bombas", municipal district of Lassance, Minas Gerais state, Brazil (Carvalho, G.M.L. and colleagues), together with nine male paratypes (N. 87,715 collected on 28/08/2008; N. 89,459 to N.89,464 collected on 30 09 2009;N.89,465 collected on 26/05/2009 and 89,466 collected on 10/03/2010) and nine female paratypes (N. 86,800 collected on 17/04/2008; 86,970; and 87,011 collected on 21/05/2009; 87,158; 87,233;87,367; 87,368 collected on 26/06/2008; 87,403 and 87,405 collected on 26/05/2008). The type-material is deposited in the "Coleção de Flebotomíneos" of the "Instituto René Rachou/FIOCRUZ", Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
The name Evandromyia spelunca sp. nov. has been given in regards to the meaning of cave in Latin.
Results and Discussion
The morphological characters of the new species permit included in the Evandromyia genus, in the cortelezzii complex. This complex consists of three species: Evandromyia corumbaensis (Galati, Nunes, Oshiro & Rego, 1989), Evandromyia cortelezzii (Brethes, 1923) and Evandromyia sallesi (Galvão & Coutinho, 1940). These species are morphologically close and often confused, causing errors in its specific identification .
The males of the genus Evandromyia present the gonocoxite with a tuft of bristles, basal and compact; the paramere is simple or branched; the lateral lobe apex is thin and the females present the relationship between the lengths: clypeus/head wider than 1/3; eye/head less than 1/2; and spermathecae, with variable body. The cortelezzii complex belongs to the cortelezzi series of the Barretomyia subgenus. This series presents as main morphological characteristics: males, with the paramere and aedeagus simple; the gonostyle with upper external spine implanted in his middle, and lower spine, inserted in the basal third. Females with the globular spermathecae's body and the individual ducts are tubular . Evandromyia edwardsi (Mangabeira, 1941) also belong to this series.
Due to the difficulty of identifying the species of this complex, it became routine, with rare exceptions , to use geographic distribution for identify them in Brazilian regions. However, it was recently demonstrated that the three species of the complex occur in all states of the Center-west Region, and only Ev. corumbaensis is restricted to that region. The species of this complex that present the greater distribution in the country is Ev. cortelezzii, demonstrating its omission from the lists of species in several states due Ev. sallesi, which has more restricted distribution than the one quoted in the literature . Thus, we do not suggest the use of geographic distribution to identify the species of this complex, but we can suggest the observation of its occurrence in caves, beyond the morphological characteristics, since the new species had their captures practically restricted to inside the cave studied, showing preference for this environment.
It is still important to emphasize that the new species is sympatric with Ev. sallesi inside or outside the cave, however the latter one are always captured inside the cave in less number than outside the cave (data not shown).
The present study adds a new species, namely Ev. spelunca sp. nov., to the Brazilian phlebotomine sand fly fauna, presenting characters for its separation from members of the cortelezzii complex, to which it belongs With the description of the new species, now the cortelezzii complex contains 4 species, belonging to the cortelezzii series of the Barretomyia subgenus, Evandromyia genus.
- Killick-Kendrick R: Phlebotomine vectors of the leishmaniasis: a review. Med Vet Entomol. 1990, 4: 1-24. 10.1111/j.1365-2915.1990.tb00255.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gontijo CMF, Melo MN: Leishmaniose Visceral no Brasil: quadro atual, desafios e perspectivas. Rev Bras Epidemiol. 2004, 7: 338-349. 10.1590/S1415-790X2004000300011.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Galati EAB: Classificação de Phlebotominae. Flebotomíneos do Brasil. Edited by: Rangel EF, Lainson R. 2003, Rio de Janeiro, Fiocruz, 23-53.Google Scholar
- Marcondes CB: A Proposal of generic and subgeneric abbreviations for phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of the world. Entomol News. 2007, 118: 351-356. 10.3157/0013-872X(2007)118[351:APOGAS]2.0.CO;2.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Galati EAB, Nunes VLB, Oshiro ET, Rego FA: Nova espécie de Phlebotominae, Lutzomyia corumbaensis, sp. n. (Diptera, Psychodidae) do complexo Lutzomyia cortelezzii. Rev Bras Entomol. 1989, 33: 765-475.Google Scholar
- Rangel EF, Azevedo AC, Andrade CA, Souza NA, Wermelinger ED: Studies on sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mesquita, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1990, 85: 39-45. 10.1590/S0074-02761990000100006.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carvalho GML, Brasil RP, Falcão AL, Andrade Filho JD: Geographical distribution of the cortelezzii complex (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) from Brazil. Neotropical Entomology. 2009, 38: 876-879. 10.1590/S1519-566X2009000600026.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.