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Figure 4 | Parasites & Vectors

Figure 4

From: Nitric oxide production by Biomphalaria glabrata haemocytes: effects of Schistosoma mansoni ESPs and regulation through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway

Figure 4

Relative NO levels in haemocytes from (A) schistosome-susceptible and (B) schistosome-resistant B. glabrata following exposure to ESPs (20 μg/ml), U0126 (1 μM or 10 μÌ) or both. Equal numbers of haemocytes (3 × 103 cells per well) from susceptible or resistant snails were exposed to U0126 (1 μM or 10 μM), ESPs (20 μg/ml), or both. Mean relative fluorescence from a single pool of haemolymph (± SEM, n = 3) is shown for each time point as a proportion of background fluorescence (no DAF-FM diacetate indicated by a dotted line). Data shown are from one assay and are representative of three different assays conducted on separate days. *P ≤ 0.05 for differences in mean fluorescence values between treatments at 2 h.

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