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  1. As a pervasive insect that transmits a variety of pathogens to humans and animals, the housefly has abundant and diverse microbial communities in its intestines. These gut microbes play an important role in th...

    Authors: Qian Zhang, Shumin Wang, Xinyu Zhang, Kexin Zhang, Wenjuan Liu, Ruiling Zhang and Zhong Zhang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:598

    Content type: Research

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  2. Cyathostomins are the most important and common parasitic nematodes of horses, with > 50 species known to occur worldwide. The frequent and indiscriminate use of anthelmintics has resulted in the development o...

    Authors: Ghazanfar Abbas, Abdul Ghafar, John Hurley, Jenni Bauquier, Anne Beasley, Edwina J. A. Wilkes, Caroline Jacobson, Charles El-Hage, Lucy Cudmore, Peter Carrigan, Brett Tennent-Brown, Charles G. Gauci, Martin K. Nielsen, Kristopher J. Hughes, Ian Beveridge and Abdul Jabbar

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:597

    Content type: Research

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  3. The Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) genogroup is the causative agent responsible for Lyme borreliosis, a common tick-borne infectious disease in some temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. In humans...

    Authors: Zsuzsa Kalmár, Violeta Briciu, Mircea Coroian, Mirela Flonta, Amanda-Lelia Rădulescu, Adriana Topan, Andrei Daniel Mihalca and Mihaela Lupșe

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:596

    Content type: Research

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  4. Mosquitoes transmit a variety of diseases. Due to widespread insecticide resistance, new effective pesticides are urgently needed. Entomopathogenic fungi are widely utilized to control pest insects in agricult...

    Authors: Liang Jin, Guodong Niu, Limei Guan, Julian Ramelow, Zhigao Zhan, Xi Zhou and Jun Li

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:595

    Content type: Research

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  5. Gastrointestinal nematodes are ubiquitous for both domestic and wild ungulates and have varying consequences for health and fitness. They exist as complex communities of multiple co-infecting species, and we h...

    Authors: Camille Beaumelle, Elizabeth M. Redman, Jill de Rijke, Janneke Wit, Slimania Benabed, François Debias, Jeanne Duhayer, Sylvia Pardonnet, Marie-Thérèse Poirel, Gilles Capron, Stéphane Chabot, Benjamin Rey, Glenn Yannic, John S. Gilleard and Gilles Bourgoin

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:594

    Content type: Research

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  6. Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of human hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (AE). AE can cause damage to several organs, primarily the liver, and have severe outcomes, such as hepatic failure and ...

    Authors: Deping Cao, Emad Shamsan, Bofan Jiang, Haining Fan, Yaogang Zhang and Mustafa Abdo Saif Dehwah

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:593

    Content type: Research

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  7. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are vectors of numerous arboviruses that adversely affect human health. In mosquito vectors of disease, the bacterial microbiota influence several physiological processes, includi...

    Authors: Sebastián Díaz, Carolina Camargo and Frank W. Avila

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:592

    Content type: Research

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  8. Mosquito assemblages are organized along an ecological gradient, including small habitats where interspecific competition predominates and large permanent habitats where predation predominates. This study aime...

    Authors: Amanda Queiroz Bastos, Paulo José Leite, Jacenir Reis dos Santos-Mallet, Cecilia Ferreira de Mello, Michele Serdeiro, Júlia Santos dos Silva, Ronaldo Figueiró, Tatiana Docile and Jeronimo Alencar

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:591

    Content type: Research

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  9. Cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected tropical disease (NTD) that affects humans and pigs following the ingestion of Taenia solium eggs. Human cysticercosis poses a substantial public health burden in endemic cou...

    Authors: Erika Galipó, Matthew A. Dixon, Claudio Fronterrè, Zulma M. Cucunubá, Maria-Gloria Basáñez, Kim Stevens, Astrid Carolina Flórez Sánchez and Martin Walker

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:590

    Content type: Research

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  10. Some of the most important malaria vectors in South America belong to the Albitarsis Complex (Culicidae; Anophelinae; Anopheles). Understanding the origin, nature, and geographical distribution of species diversi...

    Authors: Brian P. Bourke, Silvia A. Justi, Laura Caicedo-Quiroga, David B. Pecor, Richard C. Wilkerson and Yvonne-Marie Linton

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:589

    Content type: Research

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  11. This letter comments on the article “Emergence of the invasive malaria vector Anopheles stephensi in Khartoum State, Central Sudan” published in Parasites and Vectors 2021, 14:511. Here we aim of provide a respon...

    Authors: Jan Kolaczinski, Samira Al-Eryani, Emmanuel Chanda and Lucia Fernandez-Montoya

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:588

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  12. The Cimicidae are obligatory blood-feeding ectoparasites of medical and veterinary importance. We aim in the current study to assess the ability of MALDI-TOF MS to identify Cimex hirundinis swallow bugs collected...

    Authors: Fatima Zohra Hamlili, Jean-Michel Bérenger, Adama Zan Diarra and Philippe Parola

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:587

    Content type: Research

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  13. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are invasive mosquito species and significantly impact human health in southern China. Microbiota are confirmed to affect the development and immunity of mosquitoes. However, sc...

    Authors: Datao Lin, Xiaoying Zheng, Benjamin Sanogo, Tao Ding, Xi Sun and Zhongdao Wu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:586

    Content type: Research

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  14. Clip domain serine proteases (CLIPs), a very diverse group of proteolytic enzymes, play a crucial role in the innate immunity of insects. Innate immune responses are the first line of defense in mosquitoes aga...

    Authors: Hao-Cheng Wang, Qiu-Hui Wang, Biswajit Bhowmick, Yi-Xun Li and Qian Han

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:584

    Content type: Research

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  15. Merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) plays an essential role in erythrocyte invasion by malaria parasites. The C-terminal 19-kDa region of MSP1 has long been considered one of the major candidate antigens for a ...

    Authors: Qinwen Xu, Sihong Liu, Kokouvi Kassegne, Bo Yang, Jiachen Lu, Yifan Sun, Wenli Zhong, Miaosa Zhang, Yaobao Liu, Guoding Zhu, Jun Cao and Yang Cheng

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:583

    Content type: Research

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  16. Due to the lack of vaccines, malaria control mainly involves the control of anopheline vectors (Anopheles spp.) using chemical insecticides. However, the prolonged and indiscriminate use of these compounds has le...

    Authors: Derciliano Lopes da Cruz, Marcelo Henrique Santos Paiva, Duschinka Ribeiro Duarte Guedes, Elainne Christine de Souza Gomes, Silvia Gonçalves Pires, Lara Ferrero Gomez and Constância Flávia Junqueira Ayres

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:582

    Content type: Short report

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  17. There is evidence that the knockdown resistance gene (Kdr) L1014F and acetylcholinesterase-1 gene (Ace-1R) G119S mutations involved in pyrethroid and carbamate resistance in Anopheles gambiae influence malaria tr...

    Authors: Rosine Z. Wolie, Alphonsine A. Koffi, Ludovic P. Ahoua Alou, Eleanore D. Sternberg, Oulo N’Nan-Alla, Amal Dahounto, Florent H. A. Yapo, Kpahe M. H. Kanh, Soromane Camara, Welbeck A. Oumbouke, Innocent Z. Tia, Simon-Pierre A. Nguetta, Matthew B. Thomas and Raphael NGuessan

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:581

    Content type: Research

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  18. Haemonchus contortus is a blood-feeding, gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) that causes significant economic losses to the small ruminant industry worldwide. Despite extensive efforts, our understanding of the molec...

    Authors: Mariam Bakshi, Wenbin Tuo, Raffi V. Aroian and Dante Zarlenga

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:580

    Content type: Research

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  19. Authors: Werissaw Haileselassie, Endalew Zemene, Ming-Chieh Lee, Daibin Zhong, Guofa Zhou, Behailu Taye, Alemayehu Dagne, Wakgari Deressa, James W. Kazura, Guiyun Yan and Delenasaw Yewhalaw

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:579

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:516

  20. Pulsed ultraviolet (UV)-C light sources, such as excimer lasers, are used in emerging non-thermal food-decontamination methods and also have high potential for use in a wide range of microbial decontamination ...

    Authors: Jean-Luc Gala, Ott Rebane, Jérôme Ambroise, Sergey Babichenko, Omar Nyabi and Thierry Hance

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:578

    Content type: Research

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  21. The male genital structures of arthropods are key features in the taxonomic and phylogenetic study of these organisms. The male genitalia of the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis are complex organs which are p...

    Authors: Blanca E. Álvarez-Fernández, María Morales-Suárez-Varela, Benjamín Nogueda-Torres and M. Adela Valero

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:577

    Content type: Research

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  22. Arthropod-borne pathogens and their vectors are present throughout Africa. They have been well-studied in livestock of sub-Saharan Africa, but poorly in companion animals. Given the socio-economic importance o...

    Authors: Dieter Heylen, Michael Day, Bettina Schunack, Josephus Fourie, Michel Labuschange, Sherry Johnson, Samuel Maina Githigia, Foluke Adedayo Akande, Jahashi Saidi Nzalawahe, Dickson Stuart Tayebwa, Ortwin Aschenborn, Mary Marcondes and Maxime Madder

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:576

    Content type: Research

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  23. The complex life cycle of Echinococcus granulosus involves numerous environmental conditions within different intermediate and definitive hosts. This requires adaptation at different levels of transcript regulati...

    Authors: Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Majid Fasihi Harandi, Donald P. McManus and Mehdi Mansouri

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:574

    Content type: Research

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  24. Vector-borne pathogens must survive and replicate in the hostile environment of an insect’s midgut before successful dissemination. Midgut microbiota interfere with pathogen infection by activating the basal i...

    Authors: Maria G. Onyango, Rachel Lange, Sean Bialosuknia, Anne Payne, Nicholas Mathias, Lili Kuo, Aurelien Vigneron, Dilip Nag, Laura D. Kramer and Alexander T. Ciota

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:573

    Content type: Research

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  25. Invasive mosquitoes of the genus Aedes are quickly spreading around the world. The presence of these alien species is concerning for both their impact on the native biodiversity and their high vector competence. ...

    Authors: Viktória Čabanová, Kristína Boršová, Marek Svitok, Jozef Oboňa, Ivana Svitková, Eva Barbušinová, Tomáš Derka, Monika Sláviková and Boris Klempa

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:572

    Content type: Research

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  26. Vaccines against the sexual stages of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum are indispensable for controlling malaria and abrogating the spread of drug-resistant parasites. Pfs25, a surface antigen of the s...

    Authors: Pornpawee Sookpongthai, Korawich Utayopas, Thassanai Sitthiyotha, Theerakamol Pengsakul, Morakot Kaewthamasorn, Kittikhun Wangkanont, Pongchai Harnyuttanakorn, Surasak Chunsrivirot and Sittiporn Pattaradilokrat

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:571

    Content type: Research

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  27. The tick Ixodes ricinus is an important vector of tick-borne diseases including Lyme borreliosis. In continental Europe, the nymphal stage of I. ricinus often has a bimodal phenology with a large spring peak and ...

    Authors: Cindy Bregnard, Olivier Rais, Coralie Herrmann, Olaf Kahl, Katharina Brugger and Maarten J. Voordouw

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:570

    Content type: Research

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  28. The distribution of phlebotomine sand flies is changing rapidly due to climate change. This issue has implications for the epidemiology of sand fly-borne diseases, especially sand fly-associated viruses. Few s...

    Authors: Atchara Phumee, Supaporn Wacharapluesadee, Sininat Petcharat and Padet Siriyasatien

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:569

    Content type: Research

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  29. Environmental conditions affect the biology of mosquito vectors. Aedes albopictus is a major vector of many important diseases including dengue, Zika, and chikungunya in China. Understanding the development, fecu...

    Authors: Guzhen Cui, Saifeng Zhong, Tuquan Zheng, Zhangrui Li, Xu Zhang, Chuang Li, Elizabeth Hemming-Schroeder, Guofa Zhou and Yiji Li

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:568

    Content type: Research

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  30. Mast cells are known to affect the primary and secondary immune responses against parasites, and this effect is partially mediated through the release of pro-angiogenic mediators. The aim of this study was to ...

    Authors: Marwa A. EL-Dardiry, Amany A. Abdel-Aal, Magda S. A. Abdeltawab, Mona El-Sherbini, Marwa A. Hassan, Asmaa A. Abdel-Aal, Manal Badawi, Shady E. Anis, Bahaa-Eldin A. Khaled and Abeer S. Al-Antably

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:567

    Content type: Research

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  31. A number of zoonotic mosquito-borne viruses have emerged in Europe in recent decades. Batai virus (BATV), a member of the genus Orthobunyavirus, is one example of a relatively newly emerged mosquito-borne virus, ...

    Authors: Luis M. Hernández-Triana, Arran J. Folly, Elsa Barrero, Sarah Lumley, Maria del Mar Fernández de Marco, Sanam Sewgobind, Lorraine M. McElhinney, Anthony R. Fooks and Nicholas Johnson

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:566

    Content type: Short report

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  32. In Europe, Aedes albopictus is an important vector of chikungunya virus and Dirofilaria nematodes and has been involved in local autochthonous circulation of dengue and Zika viruses. Due to the ongoing spread, ta...

    Authors: Tatiana Șuleșco, Galina Bușmachiu, Unchana Lange, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit and Renke Lühken

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:565

    Content type: Short report

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  33. Bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are orbiviruses that can cause fatal vector-borne diseases in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Trapping methods for collecting pote...

    Authors: Michael Becker, Jeong-Seok Park, Glen Gentry, Claudia Husseneder and Lane Foil

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:564

    Content type: Research

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  34. The onchocerciasis focus surrounding the lower Mbam and Sanaga rivers, where Onchocerca volvulus is transmitted by Simulium damnosum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae), was historically the largest in the southern region...

    Authors: Adam Hendy, Meryam Krit, Kenneth Pfarr, Christine Laemmer, Jacobus De Witte, Philippe Nwane, Joseph Kamgno, Hugues C. Nana-Djeunga, Michel Boussinesq, Jean-Claude Dujardin, Rory Post, Robert Colebunders, Sarah O’Neill, Peter Enyong and Alfred K. Njamnshi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:563

    Content type: Research

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  35. Tahyna orthobunyavirus (TAHV) is a mosquito-borne virus that may cause mild flu-like symptoms or neurological symptoms in humans. It is historically associated with floodplain habitats in Central Europe, and the ...

    Authors: Jeremy V. Camp, Edwin Kniha, Adelheid G. Obwaller, Julia Walochnik and Norbert Nowotny

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:561

    Content type: Research

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  36. Trypanosomiasis is a fatal disease that threatens the economy of at least 37 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly with regard to livestock farming. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of try...

    Authors: Issa Funsho Habeeb, Gloria Dada Chechet and Jacob K. P. Kwaga

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:560

    Content type: Research

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  37. Despite concerns regarding increasingly frequent and intense heat waves due to global warming, there is still a lack of information on the effects of extremely high temperatures on the adult abundance of mosqu...

    Authors: Ah-Young Lim, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Yeonseung Chung, Kisung Sim and Jong-Hun Kim

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:559

    Content type: Research

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  38. Culex quinquefasciatus is not only a biting nuisance but also an important vector of fatal diseases. In Saudi Arabia, management measures to control this mosquito and thereby prevent associated disease transmissi...

    Authors: Abdulwahab M. Hafez and Naeem Abbas

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:558

    Content type: Research

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  39. Preventive chemotherapy delivered via mass drug administration (MDA) is essential for the control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), including lymphatic filariasis (LF), schistosomiasis and onchocerciasis....

    Authors: Efundem Agboraw, Fred Sosu, Laura Dean, Alice Siakeh, Rachael Thomson, Karsor Kollie and Eve Worrall

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:557

    Content type: Research

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  40. Pentavalent antimonial-based chemotherapy is the first-line approach for leishmaniasis treatment and disease control. Nevertheless antimony-resistant parasites have been reported in some endemic regions. Treat...

    Authors: Luiza O. R. Pereira, Cíntia S. Sousa, Hellen C. P. Ramos, Eduardo C. Torres-Santos, Liliane S. Pinheiro, Marcelo R. Alves, Patricia Cuervo, Gustavo A. Sierra Romero, Mariana C. Boité, Renato Porrozzi and Elisa Cupolillo

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:556

    Content type: Research

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  41. The use of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) for the control of adult mosquitoes is a promising alternative to synthetic insecticides. Previous studies have only evaluated conidiospores against adult mosquitoes. Ho...

    Authors: Adriano Rodrigues de Paula, Leila Eid Imad Silva, Anderson Ribeiro, Gerson Adriano da Silva, Carlos Peres Silva, Tariq M. Butt and Richard Ian Samuels

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:555

    Content type: Research

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  42. Nematodes are presumably the most abundant Metazoa on Earth, and can even be found in some of the most hostile environments of our planet. Various types of hypobiosis evolved to adapt their life cycles to such...

    Authors: Lieke E. Vlaar, Andre Bertran, Mehran Rahimi, Lemeng Dong, Jan E. Kammenga, Johannes Helder, Aska Goverse and Harro J. Bouwmeester

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:554

    Content type: Review

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  43. Triatoma sordida is one of the main Chagas disease vectors in Brazil. In addition to Brazil, this species has already been reported in Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. It is hypothesized that the insect...

    Authors: Fernanda Fernandez Madeira, Luiza Maria Grzyb Delgado, Isadora de Freitas Bittinelli, Jader de Oliveira, Amanda Ravazi, Yago Visinho dos Reis, Ana Beatriz Bortolozo de Oliveira, Daniel Cesaretto Cristal, Cleber Galvão, Maria Tercília Vilela de Azeredo-Oliveira, João Aristeu da Rosa and Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:553

    Content type: Research

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  44. Understanding the ecology and behaviour of disease vectors, including the olfactory cues used to orient and select hosts and egg-laying sites, are essential for the development of novel, insecticide-free contr...

    Authors: Getachew E. Bokore, Linus Svenberg, Richard Tamre, Patrick Onyango, Tullu Bukhari, Åsa Emmer and Ulrike Fillinger

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:552

    Content type: Research

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  45. Schistosomiasis is a debilitating and neglected tropical disease for which praziquantel (PZQ) remains the first-choice drug for treatment and control of the disease. In our previous studies, we found that the ...

    Authors: Zi-Yin Yang, Zi-Hao Liu, Ya-Nan Zhang, Chen Li, Lei Liu, Wen-Jie Pu, Shi-Qi Xie, Jing Xu and Chao-Ming Xia

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:550

    Content type: Research

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  46. Schistosomiasis japonica is a serious zoonotic parasitic disease. Preliminary studies have shown that the expression of microRNA-181a (miR-181a) in the liver, lung and spleen tissues of susceptible host BALB/c...

    Authors: Yixiao Tang, Yuanxi Shen, Yang Hong, Zuhang Zhang, Qi Zhai, Zhiqiang Fu, Hao Li, Ke Lu and Jiaojiao Lin

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:548

    Content type: Research

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times. Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.