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  1. During the period of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, strong intervention measures, such as lockdown, travel restriction, and suspension of work and production, may have curbed the spread of o...

    Authors: Xiaoqing Cheng, Jianli Hu, Li Luo, Zeyu Zhao, Nan Zhang, Mikah Ngwanguong Hannah, Jia Rui, Shengnan Lin, Yuanzhao Zhu, Yao Wang, Meng Yang, Jingwen Xu, Xingchun Liu, Tianlong Yang, Weikang Liu, Peihua Li…

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:483

    Content type: Research

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  2. The global impact of Zika virus in Latin America has drawn renewed attention to circulating mosquito-borne viruses in this region, such as dengue and chikungunya. Our objective was to assess socio-ecological f...

    Authors: Benoit Talbot, Beate Sander, Varsovia Cevallos, Camila González, Denisse Benítez, Claudio Carissimo, María C. Carrasquilla Ferro, Neris Gauto, Sergio Litwiñiuk, Karen López, Mario I. Ortiz, Patricio Ponce, Stephany D. Villota, Fabian Zelaya, Mauricio Espinel, Jianhong Wu…

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:482

    Content type: Research

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  3. Sarcoptic mange is a globally distributed parasitic disease caused by the burrowing mite Sarcoptes scabiei. This mite has a certain degree of host specificity, although interspecific transmission can occur among ...

    Authors: Marta Valldeperes, Barbara Moroni, Luca Rossi, Jorge Ramón López-Olvera, Roser Velarde, Anna Rita Molinar Min, Gregorio Mentaberre, Emmanuel Serrano, Samer Angelone, Santiago Lavín and José Enrique Granados

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:481

    Content type: Research

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  4. Reproductive containment provides an opportunity to implement a staged-release strategy for genetic control of malaria vectors, in particular allowing predictions about the spread and persistence of (self-limi...

    Authors: Adrien Ickowicz, Scott D. Foster, Geoffrey R. Hosack and Keith R. Hayes

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:480

    Content type: Research

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  5. Besides feeding on blood, females of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu lato readily feed on natural sources of plant sugars. The impact of toxic secondary phytochemicals contained in plant-derived sugars...

    Authors: Domonbabele F. D. S. Hien, Prisca S. L. Paré, Amanda Cooper, Benjamin K. Koama, Edwige Guissou, Koudraogo B. Yaméogo, Rakiswendé S. Yerbanga, Iain W. Farrell, Jean B. Ouédraogo, Olivier Gnankiné, Rickard Ignell, Anna Cohuet, Roch K. Dabiré, Philip C. Stevenson and Thierry Lefèvre

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:479

    Content type: Research

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  6. Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) serve as arthropod vectors for various species of Onchocerca (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) that may be associated with disease in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. The emergenc...

    Authors: Matthew Kulpa, Kimberly J. Nelson, Alana M. Morales, Bonnie M. Ryan, Michelle L. Koschik, Jamesina J. Scott and Guilherme G. Verocai

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:478

    Content type: Research

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  7. The present clinical field trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of a broad-spectrum parasiticide spot-on formulation containing eprinomectin (Broadline®) against Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm in naturally inf...

    Authors: Stefania Zanet, Simone Morelli, Angela Di Cesare, Stefano Bò, Donato Traversa, Wilfried Lebon, Frederic Beugnet, Giulia Simonato and Ezio Ferroglio

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:477

    Content type: Research

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  8. In a countrywide study aiming to update the knowledge on diversity of sand fly species in Romania, a sand fly population was observed in an isolated system of cave microhabitats. The caves are located in the p...

    Authors: Cristina Daniela Cazan, Cintia Horváth, Luciana Cătălina Panait, Daniela Porea, Mihai Marinov, Vasile Alexe and Andrei Daniel Mihalca

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:476

    Content type: Research

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  9. Parasites that infect cats include protozoa, helminths and arthropods, many of which are transmissible to humans. Effective control relies on a good knowledge of parasite distribution and the risk factors for ...

    Authors: Marco Genchi, Alice Vismarra, Stefania Zanet, Simone Morelli, Roberta Galuppi, Giuseppe Cringoli, Riccardo Lia, Manuela Diaferia, Antonio Frangipane di Regalbono, Giulia Venegoni, Fabrizio Solari Basano, Antonio Varcasia, Stefania Perrucci, Vincenzo Musella, Emanuele Brianti, Alessia Gazzonis…

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:475

    Content type: Research

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  10. Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a parasitic disease caused by the worms Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, or Brugia timori. It is a tropical and subtropical illness that affects approximately 67 million people wo...

    Authors: André Filipe Pastor, Maressa Rhuama Silva, Wagner José Tenório dos Santos, Tamisa Rego, Eduardo Brandão, Osvaldo Pompilio de-Melo-Neto and Abraham Rocha

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:474

    Content type: Review

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  11. In characterizing malaria epidemiology, measuring mosquito infectiousness informs the entomological inoculation rate, an important metric of malaria transmission. PCR-based methods have been touted as more sen...

    Authors: Allison L. Hendershot, Endashaw Esayas, Alice C. Sutcliffe, Seth R. Irish, Endalamaw Gadisa, Fitsum G. Tadesse and Neil F. Lobo

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:473

    Content type: Research

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  12. Various stimuli, including Clonorchis sinensis infection, can cause liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis is characterized by the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) with massive production of extracellular matr...

    Authors: Qian-Yang Zhou, Hui-Min Yang, Ji-Xin Liu, Na Xu, Jing Li, Li-Ping Shen, Yu-Zhao Zhang, Stephane Koda, Bei-Bei Zhang, Qian Yu, Jia-Xu Chen, Kui-Yang Zheng and Chao Yan

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:472

    Content type: Research

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  13. Little information is available about malaria and scrub typhus co-infection. This study aimed to investigate the pooled prevalence of malaria and scrub typhus co-infection in febrile patients. Further, it aime...

    Authors: Polrat Wilairatana, Saruda Kuraeiad, Pongruj Rattaprasert and Manas Kotepui

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:471

    Content type: Research

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  14. The tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, is an important ectoparasite causing various health problems. This species is mainly confined to tropical regions; however, insecticide resistance, global warming, and glob...

    Authors: Mohammad Bagher Ghavami, Zarafat Ghahremani, Narges Raeisi and Behrooz Taghiloo

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:470

    Content type: Research

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  15. Anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis are tick-borne diseases affecting humans and livestock, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Animal husbandry is the main activity of people on the borders of Iran an...

    Authors: Nayyereh Choubdar, Fateh Karimian, Mona Koosha, Jalil Nejati and Mohammad Ali Oshaghi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:469

    Content type: Research

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  16. Canine babesiosis is a disease caused by a parasite of the genus Babesia which destroys red blood cells. Previous studies have shown the presence of Babesia vogeli in rural areas in Costa Rica using molecular tec...

    Authors: Andrea García-Quesada, Ana Jiménez-Rocha, Juan José Romero-Zuñiga and Gaby Dolz

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:468

    Content type: Short report

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  17. Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan transmitted to dogs and other wild carnivores by the ingestion of ticks containing mature oocysts and is considered the principal cause of canine hepatozoonosis in the world. Here,...

    Authors: Antonio Acini Vásquez-Aguilar, Arturo Barbachano-Guerrero, Diego F. Angulo and Víctor Hugo Jarquín-Díaz

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:467

    Content type: Research

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  18. Powassan virus (POWV; genus Flavivirus) is the sole North American member of the tick-borne encephalitis sero-complex and an increasing public health threat in the USA. Maintained in nature by Ixodes spp. ticks, ...

    Authors: Rohit Sharma, Duncan W. Cozens, Philip M. Armstrong and Douglas E. Brackney

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:466

    Content type: Research

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  19. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) caused by Leishmania donovani (LD) is a skin disorder that often appears after treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients. PKDL patients are potential reservoirs ...

    Authors: Md Anik Ashfaq Khan, Khaledul Faisal, Rajashree Chowdhury, Rupen Nath, Prakash Ghosh, Debashis Ghosh, Faria Hossain, Ahmed Abd El Wahed and Dinesh Mondal

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:465

    Content type: Research

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  20. Urbanization can have profound effects on ecological interactions. For host–pathogen interactions, differences have been detected between urban and non-urban landscapes. However, host–pathogen interactions may...

    Authors: Katherine E. L. Worsley-Tonks, Stanley D. Gehrt, Chris Anchor, Luis E. Escobar and Meggan E. Craft

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:464

    Content type: Research

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  21. Stable transfection systems have been described in many protozoan parasites, including Plasmodium falciparum, Cryptosporidium parvum, Babesia bovis, Babesia ovata, and Babesia gibsoni. For Babesia sp. Xinjiang (B...

    Authors: Jinming Wang, Xiaoxing Wang, Guiquan Guan, Jifei Yang, Junlong Liu, Aihong Liu, Youquan Li, Jianxun Luo and Hong Yin

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:463

    Content type: Research

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  22. While insecticide-based vector control can effectively target vector species in areas of high malaria endemicity, such as Anopheles gambiae in Africa, residual disease transmission can occur. Understanding the po...

    Authors: Alima Qureshi and John B. Connolly

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:462

    Content type: Research

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  23. Leishmania tarentolae is a protozoan isolated from geckoes (Tarentola annularis, Tarentola mauritanica), which is considered non-pathogenic and is transmitted by herpetophilic Sergentomyia spp. sand flies. This s...

    Authors: Jairo Alfonso Mendoza-Roldan, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Roberta Iatta, Ranju R. S. Manoj, Rossella Panarese, Giada Annoscia, Marco Pombi, Andrea Zatelli, Fred Beugnet and Domenico Otranto

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:461

    Content type: Research

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  24. Babesiosis is a tick-borne disease with global impact caused by parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa, genus Babesia. Typically, acute bovine babesiosis (BB) is characterized by fever, anemia, hemoglobinuria, and h...

    Authors: Lan He, Reginaldo G. Bastos, Yali Sun, Guohua Hua, Guiquan Guan, Junlong Zhao and Carlos E. Suarez

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:460

    Content type: Review

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  25. Lyme disease, caused primarily by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in the United States. Treatment of rodent pathogen reservoirs with an oral acaricide may suppress t...

    Authors: David M. Poché, Kelsey Dawson, Batchimeg Tseveenjav and Richard M. Poché

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:459

    Content type: Research

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  26. Vector-borne diseases are a major cause of disease burden in Guayaquil, Ecuador, especially arboviruses spread by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Understanding which household characteristics and risk factors lead to h...

    Authors: Thien-An Ha, Tomás M. León, Karina Lalangui, Patricio Ponce, John M. Marshall and Varsovia Cevallos

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:458

    Content type: Research

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  27. Behavioural shifts in the canonical location and timing of biting have been reported in natural populations of anopheline malaria vectors following the implementation of insecticide-based indoor vector control...

    Authors: Amadou S. Traoré, Angélique Porciani, Nicolas Moiroux, Roch K. Dabiré, Frédéric Simard, Carlo Costantini and Karine Mouline

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:457

    Content type: Research

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  28. Triatomines are responsible for the vector transmission of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas disease. Triatoma brasiliensis is the main vector of the parasite in Brazil, and dogs are a...

    Authors: Tamyres Bernadete Dantas Queiroga, Luanderson Cardoso Pereira Gomez, Eduardo Rodrigues de Sena, Wilo Victor dos Santos, Henrique Rafael Pontes Ferreira, Vicente Toscano de Araújo-Neto, Andressa Noronha Barbosa-Silva, Carlos Ramon do Nascimento Brito, Romeika Karla dos Reis Lima, João Ciro Fagundes-Neto, Lúcia Maria da Cunha Galvão, Henrique Rocha de Medeiros, Antônia Cláudia Jácome da Câmara, Manuela Sales Lima Nascimento, Renata Antonaci Gama and Paulo Marcos Matta Guedes

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:456

    Content type: Research

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  29. Harnessing helminth-based immunoregulation is a novel therapeutic strategy for many immune dysfunction disorders, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). We previously identified a small molecule peptide...

    Authors: Wenqi Shan, Wenzhe Zhang, Fei Xue, Yongbin Ma, Liyang Dong, Ting Wang, Yu Zheng, Dingqi Feng, Ming Chang, Guoyue Yuan and Xuefeng Wang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:455

    Content type: Research

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  30. The Anopheles hyrcanus group, which includes 25 species, is widely distributed in the Oriental and Palaearctic regions. Given the difficulty in identifying cryptic or sibling species based on their morphological ...

    Authors: Canglin Zhang, Rui Yang, Linbo Wu, Chunhai Luo, Xiaofang Guo, Yan Deng, Hongning Zhou and Yilong Zhang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:454

    Content type: Research

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  31. Despite the medical importance of mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles in the transmission of malaria and other human diseases, its phylogenetic relationships are not settled, and the characteristics of mitochondria...

    Authors: Jing Guo, Zhen-Tian Yan, Wen-Bo Fu, Huan Yuan, Xu-Dong Li and Bin Chen

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:452

    Content type: Research

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  32. Complement has been considered as an important factor impacting the host–pathogen association of spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, and may play a role in the spirochete’s ecolo...

    Authors: Valerie Sürth, Isabel Lopes de Carvalho, Maria Sofia Núncio, Ana Cláudia Norte and Peter Kraiczy

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:451

    Content type: Short report

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  33. For over a decade, monitoring of West Nile virus (WNV) in Germany has consisted of a bird monitoring programme as well as a mosquito-based surveillance programme employing CO2-baited encephalitis vector surveilla...

    Authors: Noelle Fynmore, Renke Lühken, Heike Maisch, Tina Risch, Sabine Merz, Konstantin Kliemke, Ute Ziegler, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit and Norbert Becker

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:449

    Content type: Research

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  34. An entomological study was conducted in the Canaraua Fetii Special Protection Area in the Dobrogea region, South-Eastern Romania. Four sand fly species were recorded at this location between 1968 and 1970: Phlebo...

    Authors: Cristina Daniela Cazan, Attila D. Sándor, Ozge Erisoz Kasap, Bulent Alten and Andrei Daniel Mihalca

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:448

    Content type: Research

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  35. Tapeworm infections are among the tropical neglected parasitic diseases endemically occurring in Ethiopia. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims at estimating the pooled prevalence and distribution of Tae...

    Authors: Nigus Abebe Shumuye, John Asekhaen Ohiolei, Mebrahtu Berhe Gebremedhin, Hong-Bin Yan, Li Li, Wen-Hui Li, Nian-Zhang Zhang, Bao-Quan Fu and Wan-Zhong Jia

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:447

    Content type: Review

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  36. Dengue, Zika and chikungunya are arboviruses of significant public health importance that are transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. In Colombia, where dengue is hyperendemic, and where chi...

    Authors: María C. Carrasquilla, Mario I. Ortiz, Cielo León, Silvia Rondón, Manisha A. Kulkarni, Benoit Talbot, Beate Sander, Heriberto Vásquez, Juan M. Cordovez and Camila González

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:446

    Content type: Research

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  37. Larvicides are typically applied to fixed and findable mosquito breeding sites, such as fish farming ponds used in commercial aquaculture, to kill immature forms and thereby reduce the size of adult malaria ve...

    Authors: Pablo S. Fontoura, Marcos F. Silva, Anderson S. da Costa, Francismar S. Ribeiro, Marcílio S. Ferreira, Simone Ladeia-Andrade, Juliana Tonini, Priscila T. Rodrigues, Marcia C. Castro and Marcelo U. Ferreira

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:445

    Content type: Research

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  38. Strongyloides westeri is found in the small intestine of young horses, mainly in foals up to about 16 weeks of age. The main source of infection for foals is through transmammary transmission, and foals can devel...

    Authors: Ghazanfar Abbas, Abdul Ghafar, Anson V. Koehler, Jenni Bauquier, Edwina J. A. Wilkes, Caroline Jacobson, Anne Beasley, John Hurley, Lucy Cudmore, Peter Carrigan, Brett Tennent-Brown, Charles El-Hage, Martin K. Nielsen, Charles G. Gauci, Kristopher J. Hughes, Ian Beveridge…

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:444

    Content type: Short report

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  39. The arthropod-borne Mayaro virus (MAYV) causes “Mayaro fever,” a disease of medical significance, primarily affecting individuals in permanent contact with forested areas in tropical South America. Recently, M...

    Authors: Tiago Souza Salles, Marcelo Damião Ferreira Meneses, Lucio Ayres Caldas, Thayane Encarnação Sá-Guimarães, Danielle M. de Oliveira, José A. Ventura, Renata Campos Azevedo, Ricardo M. Kuster, Márcia Regina Soares and Davis Fernandes Ferreira

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:443

    Content type: Research

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  40. The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans, causes significant production losses to the cattle industry. Horn fly control relies on insecticides; however, alternative control methods such as vaccines are needed d...

    Authors: Luísa N. Domingues, Kylie G. Bendele, Lénaïg Halos, Yovany Moreno, Christian Epe, Monica Figueiredo, Martin Liebstein and Felix D. Guerrero

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:442

    Content type: Research

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  41. The family Cimicidae includes obligate hematophagous ectoparasites (bed bugs and their relatives) with high veterinary/medical importance. The evolutionary relationships of Cimicidae and their hosts have recen...

    Authors: Sándor Hornok, Tamara Szentiványi, Nóra Takács, Áron Botond Kovács, Olivier Glaizot, Philippe Christe, Nicolas Fasel, Miklós Gyuranecz and Jenő Kontschán

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:441

    Content type: Short report

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  42. Companion animal endoparasites play a substantial role in both veterinary medicine and public health. Updated epidemiological studies are necessary to identify trends in occurrence and distribution of these pa...

    Authors: Caroline Sobotyk, Kaitlyn E. Upton, Manigandan Lejeune, Thomas J. Nolan, Antoinette E. Marsh, Brian H. Herrin, Mindy M. Borst, Julie Piccione, Anne M. Zajac, Lauren E. Camp, Cassan N. Pulaski, Lindsay A. Starkey, Cristiano von Simson and Guilherme G. Verocai

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:439

    Content type: Research

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  43. The evolution of drug resistance is one of the biggest challenges in leishmaniasis and has prompted the need for new antileishmanial drugs. Repurposing of approved drugs is a faster and very attractive strateg...

    Authors: Chloé Rosa-Teijeiro, Victoria Wagner, Audrey Corbeil, Ilda d’Annessa, Philippe Leprohon, Rubens L. do Monte-Neto and Christopher Fernandez-Prada

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:438

    Content type: Research

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  44. Approximately 25–30% of individuals worldwide are infected with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), which is difficult to detect in its latent state. We aimed to evaluate the association between toxoplasmosis, the ris...

    Authors: Hung-Yi Yang, Wu-Chien Chien, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Ruei-Yu Su, Chung-Yu Lai, Chuan-Chi Yang and Nian-Sheng Tzeng

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:435

    Content type: Research

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  45. Aedes vigilax is one of the most significant arbovirus vector and pest species in Australia’s coastal regions. Occurring in multiple countries, this mosquito species occurs as a species complex which has been sep...

    Authors: Peter T. Mee, Shani Wong, Karen Brown and Stacey E. Lynch

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:434

    Content type: Research

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  46. In Norway, x-cell parasites associated with disease in farmed salmonids have been known as a rare phenomenon for two decades. These parasites cause systemic infections in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Authors: Egil Karlsbakk, Cecilie Flatnes Nystøyl, Heidrun Plarre and Are Nylund

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:431

    Content type: Research

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times. Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.