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Table 1 Vector-borne pathogens affecting dogs in Italy.

From: Canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy: current situation and perspectives

Pathogen Vector(s) a Geographical distribution b
Anaplasma phagocytophilum Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (?) C, Sardinia [16, 8284]
Anaplasma platys R. sanguineus (?) C, S [15, 48, 85, 86]
Babesia canis Dermacentor reticulatus (?), R. sanguineus (?) C, N [14, 54]
Babesia vogeli R. sanguineus, I. ricinus (?) C, S, N [54]
Babesia gibsoni R. sanguineus (?) S [52, 87]
Bartonella henselae R. sanguineus (?) Sardinia [88]
Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii R. sanguineus (?) S [17]
Borrelia burgdorferi I. ricinus C, N, S [20, 21, 22, 24]
Dirofilaria immitis Anopheles maculipennis, Aedes albopictus, A. cinereus, A. geniculatus, A. detritus, A. punctor, Coquillettidia richiardii, Culex modestus, C. pipiens, C. torrentium C, N, S [33]
Dirofilaria repens A. albopictus, A. maculipennis, C. pipiens C, N, S [33]
Acanthocheilonema grassii R. sanguineus S [89]
Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides R. sanguineus S [90]
Acanthocheilonema reconditum R. sanguineus S [59]
Dipylidium caninum Ctenocephalides canis, C. felis C, N, S [91]
Ehrlichia canis R. sanguineus C, N, S, Sardinia [4850]
Hepatozoon canis R. sanguineus C, N, S [14, 92]
Leishmania infantum Phlebotomus ariasi, P. neglectus, P. perniciosus, P. perfiliewi, P. tobbi (?) C, N, S [33]
Rickettsia conorii R. sanguineus S [51, 93]
Thelazia callipaeda Phortica variegata S, N [38, 61]
  1. Abbreviations: C, central Italy; N, northern Italy; S, southern Italy.
  2. a Question mark (?) indicates "suspected vector" to dogs.
  3. b Geographical distribution refers to the detection of pathogens either in dogs or in the vectors.