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Table 2 Vector-borne pathogens affecting cats in Italy.

From: Canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy: current situation and perspectives

Pathogen Vector(s) a Geographical distribution
Anaplasma phagocytophilum Ixodes ricinus (?), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (?) S [86]
Bartonella henselae Ctenocephalides felis (?) N [94, 95]
Bartonella clarridgeiae C. felis (?) N [72]
Dirofilaria immitis Culex spp. (?) N [34, 96]
Dipylidium caninum C. felis C, S [97]
Acanthocheilonema grassii R. sanguineus (?) C [98]
Leishmania infantum Phlebotomus perniciosus (?), Phlebotomus spp. (?) C [31, 32]
Rickettsia felis b C. felis (?) N [26]
Thelazia callipaeda Phortica variegata (?) N, S [61]
  1. Abbreviations: C, central Italy; N, northern Italy; S, southern Italy.
  2. a Question mark (?) indicates "suspected vector" to cats.
  3. b Rickettsia felis DNA has been detected in C. felis fleas, but no evidence of infection in cats has been shown [26]. The pathogenic role of R. felis in cats is yet to be demonstrated [99].