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Table 2 Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis infection according to demographic data and family characteristics.

From: Prevalence and risk factors for Giardia duodenalis infection among children: A case study in Portugal

Risk factor (total n*) n Positive results (%) p Risk Estimate (OR) OR Confidence Interval (95%)
Gender (844)      
Male 446 31 (6.9) 0.891 1.06 0.62 - 1.82
Female 398 26 (6.5)   1.00  
Age (844)      
0 - 5 years 403 31 (7.8) 0.268 1.41 0.82 - 2.43
6 - 15 years 441 26 (5.8)   1.00  
Family structure      
Number of adults (839)      
1 42 5 (11.9) 0.187 2.02 0.76 - 5.36
> 1 797 50 (6.2)   1.00  
Number of children (825)      
1 349 24 (6.8) 0.777 1.10 0.63 - 1.91
> 1 476 30 (6.3)   1.00  
Birth order (759)      
Not the first 479 16 (6.8) 0.646 0.82 0.44 - 1.52
First 280 33 (5.7)   1.00  
Mother's educational level (828)      
No educated 13 3 (23.0) 0.047 4.49 1.20 - 16.84
Educated 815 51 (6.2)   1.00  
Father's educational level (812)      
No educated 14 6 (42.8) < 0.001 12.26 4.08 - 36.82
Educated 798 46 (5.7)   1.00  
Attendance of day care institution/Kindergarten (789)      
Yes 640 43 (6.7) 0.592 0.82 0.42 - 1.60
No 149 12 (8.0)   1.00  
Day care centre (< 3 years) (844)      
Yes 193 14 (7.2) 0.745 1.11 0.59 - 2.07
No 651 43 (6.6)   1.00  
Kindergarten (3-5 years) (844)      
Yes 352 20 (5.6) 0.332 0.74 0.42 - 1.30
No 492 37 (7.5)   1.00  
Helicobacter pylori infection (821)      
Yes 56 25 (44.6) 0.037 1.82 1.05 - 3.15
No 756 235 (30.7)   1.00  
Chronic disease (837)      
Yes 87 5 (5.7) 0.824 0.82 0.32 - 2.11
No 750 52 (6.9)   1.00  
  1. * Numbers in parenthesis refers to sample size used for each variable after discharging children with missing data on the questionnaires. Statistically significant P values (< 0.05) are highlighted in boldface.