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Table 2 Larvicidal activity of essential oil from Indian borage against a laboratory colony and wild population of African malarial vector mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae s.s. after 12 and 24 hours 12, 24 and 48 h of exposure period respectively

From: Toxicity of essential oil from Indian borage on the larvae of the African malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae

  Concentration (ppm) Time Mortality L C50 (LCL-UCL)a LC90 (LCL-UCL)a X2 (df=4)b
Laboratory colony (An. gambiae s.s) 3.125 After 12 Hours 0±0.0 98.56 (76.55 – 158.18) 147.40 (112.35 – 276.75) 25.52
6.25 0±0.0
12.5 0±0.0
25 0±0.0
50 26±1.30
100 55±1.58
3.125 After 24 Hours 3±0.89 55.20 (35.26 – 96.69) 99.09 (70.65 – 203.33) 49.36
6.25 5±0.70
12.5 14±0.83
25 16±1.48
50 83±1.67
100 98±0.54
3.125 After 48 Hours 23±1.14 32.41 (8.23 – 62.40) 98.84 (66.67 – 242.69) 30.57
6.25 29±0.70
12.5 51±0.83
25 55±1.0
50 95±0.70
100 100±0.0
Wild population (An. gambiae s.l) 3.125 After 12 Hours 0±0.0 119.52 (98.53 – 164.94) 179.85 (143.12 – 268.45) 8.19
6.25 0±0.0
12.5 1±0.44
25 2±0.89
50 15±1.58
100 37±1.14
3.125 After 24 Hours 0±0.0 67.53 (55.31 – 85.22) 107.60 (88.92 – 143.21) 16.23
6.25 0±0.0
12.5 3±0.89
25 14±0.83
50 47±1.14
100 96±0.83
3.125 After 48 Hours 42±1.67 25.51 (0.25 – 46.94) 111.17 (76.91 – 238.56) 16.63
6.25 44±2.68
12.5 52±1.51
25 52±2.07
50 95±0.70
100 98±0.54
  1. a – 95% Confidence interval.
  2. b – Degrees of freedom.
  3. LCL Lower Confidence level, UCL Upper Confidence level.