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Table 4 Pathogen association in co-infected ticks

From: Occurrence and identification of risk areas of Ixodes ricinus-borne pathogens: a cost-effectiveness analysis in north-eastern Italy

Co-infected ticks Pathogen associations
double co-infection  
3 R. helvetica-B. garinii
3 R. helvetica-Ca. N. mikurensis
1 R. monacensis-B. afzelii
1 R. monacensis-Ca. N. mikurensis
1 R. monacensis-B. valaisiana
1 B. afzelii-Ca. N. mikurensis
1 B. garinii/B. valaisiana
1 B. garinii-Ca. N. mikurensis
1 TBE-B. burgdorferi s.s.
triple co-infection  
1 TBE-B. burgdorferi s.s.-B. afzelii
1 R. monacensis-B. afzelii-Ca. N. mikurensis
1 R. monacensis-B. burgdorferi s.s.-Ca. N. mikurensis
1 B. valaisiana-Babesia EU1-Ca. N. mikurensis