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Table 5 Tick/micro-organism associations for which pathogenic status and vector status for human should be investigated as a priority: pathogens and suspected pathogens/tick species associations found abroad or in Belgium referenced in the literature for tick species found in Belgium

From: Spatial disaggregation of tick occurrence and ecology at a local scale as a preliminary step for spatial surveillance of tick-borne diseases: general framework and health implications in Belgium

Tick species V/U Borrelia Babesia Rickettsia Coxiella, Franciscella Anaplasma Virus Other
I. ricinus V burgdorferi sensu stricto * , afzelii * , garinii *, lusitaniae valaisiana * , spielmanii *, sp bavariensis *, miyamotoi*, venatorum * , divergens * , microti * helvetica F. tularensis* A. phagocytophilum * CCHF*, TBEV*, Louping Ill*  
  U ruskii bovis, bigemina, rodhaini prowazekii*, conorii * , slovaca*, monacensis*, felis*, massiliae*, typhi*, sp. C. burnetii * WNV*, Eyack*, Erve* Tettnang*, Tribec*, KEMV* Bartonella henselae*, Serratia marcescens*, Staphylococcus aureus*, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis*, Toxoplasma gondii*, Pasteurella pneumotropica*, Chromobacterium violaceum*, Pseudomonas aeruginosa*, Diplorickettsia massilinsis
I. frontalis U afzelii * , garinii * , turdi-like burgdorferi sensu lato,    C. burnetii* KEMV*, TBEV* Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis*
I. acuminatus U burgdorferi sensu lato    C. burnetii* F. tularensis* Bhanja  
I. hexagonus V burgdorferi sensu lato     TBEV*  
  U burgdorferi sensu stricto *, valaisiana *, spielmanii *, garinii *, afzelii *, lusitaniae , bavariensis* microti*, bovis conorii*, helvetica , sp. A. phagocytophilum * Erve*  
I. arboricola U garinii * , valaisiana * afzelii * , burgdorferi sensu lato, spielmanii *   helvetica, sp.   TBEV*  
I. lividus U burgdorferi sensu stricto*, garinii*   (heilongjiangensis), sp. C. burnetii* TBEV* Kama  
I. canisuga U burgdorferi sensu lato     TBEV* Yersinia pestis (Plague) *
I. trianguliceps V   microti*     
  U burgdorferi sensu lato, afzelii*, garinii*    C. burnetii*, F. tularensis* A. phagocytophilum* Louping-ill*, TBEV*, CCHF*  
I. vespertilionis U      Kul, TBEV*  
D. reticulatus V   microti* sibirica* C. burnetii* OHF*  
  U burgdorferi sensu lato divergens* bigemina slovaka*, canada*, conorii*, sp, helvetica*, raoultii* F. tularensis* Francisella-like A. phagocytophilum * TBEV* Bartonella henselae*
R. sanguineus V    conorii*   CCHF*  
  U burgdorferi sensu lato microti-like*, gibsoni Candidatus rickettsia kulagini, massiliae *, canis, felis*, rickettsi*, rhipicephali, C. burnetii*, A. phagocytophilum* Thogoto* Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii Hepatozoon canis, Salmonella bacteria, Batonella vinsonii, Rangelia vitalii, Dipetalonema dracunculoides, Mycoplasma haemocanis, Leishmania infantum
A. reflexus U     C. burnetii* WNV*, TBEV*, NYMV, QRFV  
A. vespertilionis U burgdorferi sensu lato, borrelia sp    C. burnetii* rabies*, IK (KTR),SOK Wolbachia persica, Treponoma vespertilionis
H. aegyptium U turcica, sp    C. burnetii*   
  1. V confirmed vector, U unknown vector status, * recognised pathogen, WNV West Nile Virus, CCHF Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic fever, TBEV Tick borne Encephalitis virus, QRFV Quaranfi Virus, NYMV Nyamanini virus, KTR Ketera virus, OHF Omsk Hemorrhagic fever, SOK Sokolok, IK Issyk Kul, KEMV Kemerovo. In bold pathogen recorded in Belgium. Details in Additional file 3.