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Table 7 Knock down times (KDT), mortality and susceptibility of essential oils on sensitive Anopheles gambiae “Kisumu”

From: Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from Benin against Anopheles gambiae (Giles)

Doses 0.25% 0.50% 1%
Essential oils and controls KDT50a(min) KDT95a(min) Mortality (%) Susceptibilityb KDT50a(min) KDT95a(min) Mortality (%) Susceptibilityb KDT50a(min) KDT95a(min) Mortality (%) Susceptibilityb
Cymbopogon citratus 62.0 119.8 55.6 R 2.1 13.9 100 S 1.2 6.6 100 S
Cymbopogon giganteus - - 10.7 R 204.4 366.5 10.0 R 33.5 100.2 29.6 R
Cymbopogon schoenanthus - - 0.0 R 263.5 440.7 6.4 R 49.0 117.8 6.7 R
Eucalyptus citriodora - - 4.3 R 125.2 207.3 10.4 R 32.2 61.7 75.5 R
Eucalyptus tereticornis 12.4 49.8 72.5 R 5.4 18.2 86.7 R 2.5 16.1 98 S
Cochlospermum tinctorium 44.3 115.6 23.3 R 10.6 19.4 44.0 R 8.1 16.7 72.7 R
Cochlospermum planchonii 34.5 74.1 13.0 R 25.1 52.8 23.6 R 20.9 39.9 24.5 R
Securidaca longepedunculata - - 5.9 R 314.1 539.5 5.6 R 76.2 91.3 8.6 R
Chenopodium ambrosioides 736.3 1290.0 9.8 R 127.8 201.3 18.8 R 110.9 178.9 41.9 R
Permethrin 0.75% 11.3 21.6 100 S 11.3 21.6 100 S 11.3 21.6 100 S
Negative control 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 -
Doses 2% 4% 8%
Essential oils and controls KDT 50 a (min) KDT 95 a (min) Mortality (%) Susceptibility b KDT 50 a (min) KDT 95 a (min) Mortality (%) Susceptibility b KDT 50 a (min) KDT 95 a (min) Mortality (%) Susceptibility b
Cymbopogon citratus - 3.8 100 S - 3.8 100 S - - - -
Cymbopogon giganteus 6.2 9.5 62.7 R 2.6 3.8 100 S - - - -
Cymbopogon schoenanthus 6.9 14.5 83.0 R 2.6 3.8 100 S - - - -
Eucalyptus citriodora 4.5 9.0 100 S 2.6 3.8 100 S - - - -
Eucalyptus tereticornis - 3.8 100 S - 3.3 100 S - - - -
Cochlospermum tinctorium 6.9 12.3 78.1 R 5.2 9.1 79.2 R - - - -
Cochlospermum planchonii 16.3 31.3 58.5 R 12.1 21.1 98.3 S 11.3 20.6 100 S
Securidaca longepedunculata 10.9 81.0 29.6 R 2.6 3.8 98.2 S 2.6 3.8 100 S
Chenopodium ambrosioides 12.8 25.2 100 S 2.6 3.8 100 S - - - -
Permethrin 0.75% 11.3 21.6 100 S 11.3 21.6 100 S 11.3 21.6 100 S
Negative control 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 -
  1. aThe KDT (KDT50 and KDT95) values were expressed with 95% confidence limits.
  2. bS = Susceptible defined as 98-100% of mortality; RS = Resistance suspected defined as 90-97% of mortality; R = Resistance defined as <90% of mortality.