Quantitative PCR validation of candidate P450s in An. arabiensis from Zanzibar. A) Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of CYP4G16, CYP6Z2 and CYP6Z3 was performed on An. arabiensis collected from Pemba (Mangwena) and Unguja (Chuini & Mwera) in 2012. The mean ± SEM for three ddCq values relative to Unguja are presented. (B) CYP4G16 expression in An. arabiensis collected in 2013. Four groups of mosquitoes were included in the analysis: (i) Pujini exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin (0.05%) (Pujiniλ) (ii) Pujini unexposed to insecticide (Pujini_untreated) (iii) Mwera (iv) Chuini. The mean ddCq values ± SEM of five biological replicates are presented. NS = non-significant. *p <0.05 one-sided Student’s t-test.