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Table 4 Diagnostic tools used by veterinarians to confirm a suspected case of CanL

From: Management of canine leishmaniosis in endemic SW European regions: a questionnaire-based multinational survey

  France n = 994 Greece n = 201 Italy n = 231
Technique % Never Occasional to frequent Always Never Occasional to frequent Always Never Occasional to frequent Always
Cytology
Lymph nodes 34.6 52.8 12.6 21.4 58.6 20 46.7 48.0 5.3
Bone Marrow 65.5 30.6 3.9 69.6 29.4 1.1 59.9 33.6 6.6
Skin lesions 65 28.9 6.1 56.6 40.4 3 28.8 56.5 14.7
Serology
IFAT 22.7 28.7 48.6 16 45 39 4.3 48.9 46.8
Rapid tests 42 33.9 24 4.6 37.1 58.3 30.9 38.2 30.9
ELISA 13.5 34.7 51.9 14.3 58.9 26.8 25.2 37.7 37.1
Other techniques
PCR 55.7 36.6 7.7 52.1 46.4 1.4 20.9 66.9 12.2
Protein electrophoresis 42.3 41 16.8 76.6 20.4 2.1 10.6 39.8 49.7
Histopathology 51.1 45.8 3.1 72.3 27.7 0 64.9 35.1 0
Immunohistochemistry 94.3 4.7 1 94.5 5.5 0 83 13.8 3.2
  Slovenia n = 49 Spain n = 483 Portugal n = 141
Cytology
Lymph nodes 2 4 0 14.3 80.2 5.5 19.4 72.1 8.6
Bone Marrow 2 2 0 18.1 71.4 10.5 36.2 53.2 10.6
Skin lesions 6.1 2 0 34.2 61.8 3.9 82.9 14.6 2.4
Serology
IFAT 0 4 0 6.3 37.9 55.9 9.4 36.7 25.9
Rapid test 0 2 2 11.5 54.0 34.5 20 43.5 36.5
ELISA 0 2 6.1 42.3 47.3 10.4 43.9 43.9 12.2
Other techniques
PCR 0 2 2 8.3 86.6 5.1 57.8 37.6 4.7
Protein electrophoresis 0 2 0 nd Nd nd 96.5 1.8 1.8
Histopathology 0 4.1 0 35.3 63.9 0.8 91.5 6.8 1.7
Immunohistochemistry 0 2 0 15.0 40.4 44.6 33.8 48.8 17.5
  1. nd: not determined.