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Table 1 Seasonal diversity in larval habitats of mosquitoes in rural (Yondarou, Thui), peri-urban (Pèdè) and urban (Kossarou) Kandi

From: Dry season refugia for anopheline larvae and mapping of the seasonal distribution in mosquito larval habitats in Kandi, northeastern Benin

Study sites Nature of larval habitats Wetseason Dry season Total
   Total 1 % CI-95% Total 2 % CI-95% Total % CI-95%
Yondarou (rural) Rain water collections 13 37.14a.b [21.47- 55.08] 0 0.00a [00.00- 11.95] 13 20.31a [11.28- 32.22]
Various holes 5 14.29b.c [04.81- 30.26] 0 0.00a [00.00- 11.95] 5 7.81b [02.53- 17.30]
In shallow aquifer 1 2.86c [00.07- 14.92] 0 0.00a [00.00- 11.95] 1 1.56b [00.04- 08.40]
Domestic habitats 15 42.86b [26.32- 60.65] 21 72.41b [34.85- 98.73] 36 56.25a.c [09.90- 81.59]
Cisterns/Wells 0 0.00c [00.00- 10.00] 2 6.90a [00.85- 22.77] 2 3.13b [00.38- 10.84]
Around public standpipes 0 0.00c [00.00- 10.00] 2 6.90a [00.85- 22.77] 2 3.13b [00.38- 10.84]
Polluted water collections 0 0.00c [00.00- 10.00] 1 3.45a [00.09- 17.77] 1 1.56b [00.05- 08.40]
Others 1 2.86c [00.07- 14.92] 3 10.34a [02.19- 27.35] 4 6.25b [01.73- 15.24]
Total 35 100 - 29 100.00 - 64 100 -
Thui (rural) Rain water collections 7 77.78a [39.99- 97.19] 0 0.00a [00.00- 40.96] 7 43.75a [19.75- 70.12]
Various holes 2 22.22a.b [02.81- 60.01] 0 0.00a [00.00- 40.96] 2 12.50b [01.67- 99.30]
Domestic habitats 0 0.00b [00.00- 33.63] 3 42.86a.b [09.90- 81.59] 3 18.75a.b [04.05- 45.65]
Cisterns/Wells 0 0.00b [00.00- 33.63] 3 42.86a.b [09.90- 81.59] 3 18.75a.b [04.05- 45.65]
Polluted water collections 0 0.00b [00.00- 33.63] 1 14.29a.c [00.36- 57.87] 1 6.25b.c [00.19- 30.23]
Total 9 100 - 7 100 - 16 100 -
Pèdè (peri-urban) Rain water collections 29 82.86a [66.35- 93.44] 0 0.00a [00.00- 30.85] 29 64.44a [48.78- 78.13]
Various holes 2 5.71b [00.70- 19.16] 0 0.00a [00.00- 30.85] 2 4.44b [00.54- 15.15]
In shallow aquifer 1 2.86b [00.70- 14.92] 0 0.00a [00.00- 30.85] 1 2.22b [00.06- 11.77]
Domestic habitats 0 0.00b [00.00- 10.00] 0 0.00a [00.00- 30.85] 0 0.00c [00.00- 07.87]
Cisterns/Wells 0 0.00b [00.00- 10.00] 7 70.00b [34.75- 93.33] 7 15.56d [06.49- 29.46]
Around public standpipes 2 5.71b [00.70- 19.16] 3 30.00a.b [06.67- 65.25] 5 11.11d [03.71- 24.05]
Polluted water collections 1 2.86b [00.70- 14.92] 0 0.00a [00.00- 30.85] 1 2.22b [00.06- 11.77]
Total 35 100 - 10 100 - 45 100 -
Kossarou (urban) Rain water collections 34 65.38a [50.91- 78.03] 0 0.00a [00.00- 30.85] 34 54.84a [41.68- 67.52]
Various holes 6 11.54b [04.35- 23.44] 0 0.00a [00.00- 30.85] 6 9.68b [03.63- 19.88]
Domestic habitats 11 21.15b.c [11.70- 46.42] 0 0.00a [00.00- 30.85] 11 17.74b.c [08.42- 31.01]
Cisterns/Wells 0 0.00d [00.00- 06.85] 5 50.00b [18.71- 81.29] 5 8.06b [02.67- 17.83]
Polluted water collections 1 1.92d [00.05- 16.26] 5 50.00b [18.71- 81.29] 6 9.68b [03.63- 19.88]
Total 52 100 - 10 100 - 62 100 -
  Total 131 70.05 [63.49- 76.62] 56 29.95 [23.38- 36.51] 187 100  
  1. *Types of larval breeding habitats that were not mentioned at a study sites (Table 1) should be considered as not present in this location.
  2. CI-95%: 95%-Confidence Interval.
  3. a,b,c,dValues with the same superscript do not differ significantly at α = 0.05.