Deduced amino acid sequences, multiple sequence alignment, and predicted secondary structure of aquaporins from Opisthorchis viverrini . Multiple sequence alignment of aquaporins from Opisthorchis viverrini and other eukaryotic organisms (panel A). Homologous protein sequences are derived from GenBank: Ov- AQP-1 (KF697690), Ov- AQP-2 (KF697691), Cs-AQP-3 and Cs-AQP-9 from Clonorchis sinensis (GAA31414 and GAA55320), Sm-AQP from Schistosoma mansoni (XP_002572046), humanAQP from Homo sapiens (CAG46822) and Fg-AQP-1 from Fasciola gigantica (AD032834). Schematic representation of the predicted architecture of Ov-AQPs in the cell membrane (panel B). Ov-AQPs consist of 2 hemipores, each hemipore containing 3 transmembrane domains. Hemipore-1 is composed of transmembrane domains 1, 2, 3 and hemipore-2 is composed of transmembrane domains 4, 5, and 6. The pore-forming signature motif NPA (Asn-Pro-Ala) is located in both loops B and E.