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Table 2 Univariate analysis of risk factors for STH infections in schoolchildren of rural Honduras ( n= 320)

From: School hygiene and deworming are key protective factors for reduced transmission of soil-transmitted helminths among schoolchildren in Honduras

          A. lumbricoides   T. trichiura  
Variables A. lumbricoides   T. trichiura   Hookworms   Mixed infections   Mod-heavy (n = 97)   Mod-heavy (n = 214)  
  OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Agea 0.94 (0.78-1.12) 0.488 1.14 (0.97-1.35) 0.119 1.23 (0.99-1.52) 0.053 1.01 (0.85-1.21) 0.862 1.02 (0.78-1.34) 0.867 0.99 (0.79-1.24) 0.926
Sex (boys vs. girls) 1.40 (0.87-2.27) 0.168 1.06 (0.66-1.69) 0.815 2.07 (1.10-3.90) 0.023 1.64 (1.02-2.65) 0.041 1.55 (0.68-3.55) 0.295 1.02 (0.55-1.87) 0.959
SESb 0.73 (0.61-0.88) 0.001 0.77 (0.65-0.90) 0.002 0.83 (0.67-1.03) 0.093 0.75 (0.63-0.89) 0.001 0.96 (0.72-1.28) 0.790 0.80 (0.65-0.99) 0.044
Earthen floor at home (total-partial vs. cement-tile) 1.90 (1.17-3.11) 0.010 2.95 (1.73-5.05) <0.001 1.48 (0.80-2.71) 0.207 1.96 (1.21-3.17) 0.007 1.60 (0.70-3.65) 0.267 1.85 (1.00-3.42) 0.050
Sanitary facility at home (none vs. latrine-toilet) 2.63 (1.34-5.17) 0.005 3.95 (1.50-10.42) 0.006 2.65 (1.24-5.65) 0.012 3.00 (1.53-5.90) 0.001 0.60 (0.22-1.63) 0.321 2.45 (1.15-5.21) 0.020
Piped water at home (no vs. yes) 2.15 (1.12-4.13) 0.021 2.48 (1.11-5.55) 0.027 0.81 (0.32-2.03) 0.654 1.94 (1.01-3.70) 0.045 1.01 (0.37-2.77) 0.983 0.50 (0.19-1.27) 0.145
Handwashing (occasionally vs. regularly) 2.08 (1.00-4.33) 0.050 3.04 (1.14-8.13) 0.027 1.19 (0.47-3.06) 0.711 1.88 (0.91-3.91) 0.089 0.73 (0.24-2.22) 0.582 1.36 (0.58-3.22) 0.482
Open defecation (occasional-habitual vs. no) 3.11 (1.86-5.20) <0.001 3.03 (1.66-5.54) <0.001 1.99 (1.07-3.70) 0.030 3.30 (1.98-5.50) <0.001 0.95 (0.42-2.15) 0.898 2.04 (1.10-3.81) 0.024
Wearing shoes outdoors (no vs. yes) 1.67 (1.03-2.71) 0.038 1.25 (0.78-2.00) 0.344 1.21 (0.66-2.21) 0.538 1.64 (1.02-2.63) 0.042 1.80 (0.78-4.15) 0.165 2.71 (1.41-5.18) 0.003
Domestic chores (outdoor vs. indoor) 2.45 (1.39-4.35) 0.002 2.12 (1.09-4.12) 0.026 1.53 (0.76-3.10) 0.231 2.58 (1.46-4.56) 0.001 1.75 (0.69-4.43) 0.234 1.47 (0.73-2.94) 0.281
Recalled expelling worms (yes vs. no) 1.83 (1.11-3.02) 0.019 1.46 (0.91-2.34) 0.113 1.39 (0.74-2.59) 0.301 1.73 (1.06-2.82) 0.028 2.43 (1.01-5.85) 0.048 1.53 (0.80-2.91) 0.195
Recalled previous deworming (yes vs. no)c 0.71 (0.34-1.47) 0.354 1.57 (0.76-3.21) 0.219 0.76 (0.31-1.85) 0.549 0.78 (0.38-1.63) 0.513 1.79 (0.55-5.84) 0.337 0.88 (0.32-2.42) 0.807
STH awarenessd 0.86 (0.67-1.11) 0.248 0.90 (0.72-1.11) 0.314 0.74 (0.55-1.00) 0.053 0.80 (0.63-1.01) 0.061 0.98 (0.69-1.40) 0.912 0.95 (0.71-1.28) 0.759
School hygiene (lower vs. higher level) 6.37 (3.46-11.73) <0.001 4.75 (2.88-7.84) <0.001 1.05 (0.57-1.93) 0.874 4.32 (2.49-7.48) <0.001 2.60 (0.84-8.07) 0.098 1.27 (0.64-2.51) 0.491
School deworming (none-once vs. twice a year) 3.50 (1.71-7.17) <0.001 0.81 (0.46-1.43) 0.480 3.17 (1.21-8.32) 0.019 3.89 (1.90-7.96) <0.001 0.99 (0.26-3.79) 0.989 5.83 (1.99-17.08) 0.001
  1. OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval; STH: soil-transmitted helminth; SES: socio-economic status; Mod-Heavy: moderate-to-heavy infections.
  2. aAge as continuous variable in years.
  3. bSES quintiles calculated as described in methodology section. Three missing data (n = 317).
  4. cTen children did not recall receiving previous deworming treatment.
  5. dSTH awareness score calculated as described in methodology section. Range = 0 – 5.