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Table 2 Effect of different landscape types and host traits on helminth burden

From: Landscape characteristics influence helminth infestations in a peri-domestic rodent - implications for possible zoonotic disease

Response variable Predictor Coefficient ± SE t / z p Effect %DE
Species richness Crop 1.72 ± 0.32 t = 5.330 <0.001 + 39.70
  Livestock -1.14 ± 0.27 t = -4.300 <0.001 -  
  Urban -1.55 ± 0.23 t = -6.768 <0.001 -  
  Length 0.18 ± 0.03 t = 6.950 <0.001 +  
  Sex -0.38 ± 0.10 t = -3.831 <0.001 + ♂  
  Density -0.13 ± 0.03 t = -4.188 <0.001 -  
  Year 2004 0.94 ± 0.16 t = 5.860 <0.001 +  
  Year 2010 1.33 ± 0.20 t = 6.764 <0.001 +  
  Crop: Density -0.17 ± 0.06 t = -2.971 0.003 -  
  Urban: Density 0.26 ± 0.05 t = 5.020 <0.001 +  
Helminth prevalence Crop 1.46 ± 0.56 z = 2.604 0.009 + 33.05
  Livestock -2.45 ± 0.47 z = -5.191 <0.001 -  
  Urban -1.74 ± 0.50 z = -3.477 0.001 -  
  Length 0.33 ± 0.09 z = 3.894 <0.001 +  
  Density -0.18 ± 0.07 z = -2.656 <0.001 -  
  Year 2010 3.39 ± 0.53 z = 6.347 <0.001 +  
Helminth abundance Crop 1.02 ± 0.15 t = 6.762 <0.001 + 51.52
  Livestock -1.44 ± 0.20 t = -7.245 <0.001 -  
  Urban -1.70 ± 0.16 t = -10.503 <0.001 -  
  Length 0.06 ± 0.01 t = 5.331 <0.001 +  
  Density -0.06 ± 0.01 t = -4.472 <0.001 -  
  Year 2004 0.39 ± 0.06 t = 6.046 <0.001 +  
  Year 2010 1.55 ± 0.15 t = 10.331 <0.001 +  
  Crop: Density -0.12 ± 0.03 t = -4.341 <0.001 -  
  Urban: Density 0.14 ± 0.02 t = 6.081 <0.001 +  
H. spira prevalence Crop 1.97 ± 0.55 z = 3.601 <0.001 + 47.87
  Livestock -6.55 ± 1.06 z = -6.196 <0.001 -  
  Urban -2.38 ± 0.47 z = -5.080 <0.001 -  
  Length 0.20 ± 0.08 z = 2.614 0.009 +  
  Density -0.28 ± 0.11 z = -2.603 0.009 -  
  Year 2004 1.56 ± 0.74 z = 2.108 0.035 +  
  Year 2010 5.51 ± 0.98 z = 5.635 <0.001 +  
H. spira abundance Crop 1.15 ± 0.16 t = 7.057 <0.001 + 53.81
  Livestock -1.67 ± 0.23 t = -7.218 <0.001 -  
  Urban -1.91 ± 0.16 t = -12.055 <0.001 -  
  Length 0.08 ± 0.01 t = 6.027 <0.001 +  
  Density -0.07 ± 0.02 t = -4.266 <0.001 -  
  Year 2004 0.46 ± 0.08 t = 6.077 <0.001 +  
  Year 2010 2.18 ± 0.16 t = 13.926 <0.001 +  
  Crop: Density -0.14 ± 0.03 t = -4.643 <0.001 -  
  Livestock: Density -0.75 ± 0.14 t = -5.289 <0.001 -  
  Urban: Density 0.10 ± 0.03 t = 3.972 <0.001 +  
N. capensis prevalence Crop 3.94 ± 0.69 z = 5.717 <0.001 + 26.13
  Livestock -1.74 ± 0.65 z = -2.686 0.007 -  
  Urban -2.56 ± 0.57 z = -4.459 <0.001 -  
  Sex -0.85 ± 0.23 z = -3.777 <0.001 + ♂  
  Length 0.25 ± 0.06 z = 4.351 <0.001 +  
  Density -0.33 ± 0.07 z = -4.554 <0.001 -  
  Year 2004 1.79 ± 0.38 z = 4.768 <0.001 +  
  Year 2010 2.88 ± 0.49 z = 5.925 <0.001 +  
  Crop: Density -0.40 ± 0.12 z = -3.364 <0.001 -  
  Livestock: Density 0.35 ± 0.14 z = 2.427 0.015 +  
  Urban: Density 0.46 ± 0.11 z = 4.019 <0.001 +  
N. capensis abundance Crop 1.73 ± 0.33 t = 5.168 <0.001 + 30.57
  Livestock -1.20 ± 0.41 t = -2.927 0.004 -  
  Urban -1.95 ± 0.36 t = -5.359 <0.001 -  
  Sex -0.26 ± 0.09 t = -2.827 0.005 + ♂  
  Length 0.12 ± 0.02 t = 5.681 <0.001 +  
  Density -0.13 ± 0.03 t = -3.708 <0.001 -  
  Year 2004 0.62 ± 0.13 t = 4.622 <0.001 +  
  Year 2010 1.90 ± 0.32 t = 6.019 <0.001 +  
  Crop: Density -0.17 ± 0.07 t = -2.655 0.008 -  
  Urban: Density 0.20 ± 0.05 t = 3.970 <0.001 +  
Syphacia sp. prevalence Livestock -0.85 ± 0.39 z = -2.166 0.030 - 4.60
  Urban -0.83 ± 0.40 z = -2.050 0.040 -  
  Sex -0.44 ± 0.20 z = -2.195 0.028 + ♂  
  Length 0.16 ± 0.05 z = 3.166 0.002 +  
  Year 2010 0.78 ± 0.36 z = 2.202 0.028 +  
Syphacia sp. abundance Sex -0.43 ± 0.17 t = 0.0123 0.012 + ♂ 1.79
T. probolurus prevalence Livestock -1.35 ± 0.37 z = -3.624 <0.001 - 12.85
  Urban -1.70 ± 0.42 z = -4.056 <0.001 -  
  Length 0.27 ± 0.06 z = 4.704 <0.001 +  
T. probolurus abundance Livestock -1.57 ± 0.41 t = -3.806 <0.001 - 22.27
  Urban -1.55 ± 0.41 t = -3.757 <0.001 -  
  Length 0.26 ± 0.04 t = 5.752 <0.001 +  
Hymenolepis sp. prevalence Livestock 0.57 ± 0.34 z = 1.657 (0.098) + 6.87
  Urban 0.57 ± 0.34 z = 1.657 (0.098) +  
  Density 0.13 ± 0.04 z = 3.377 <0.001 +  
  Length 0.25 ± 0.06 z = 4.104 <0.001 +  
  1. Generalized linear model results that showed a significant relationship between landscape type (crop, livestock, urban and natural habitat), host density, host length and host sex on species richness and helminth parasite prevalence and abundance in R. pumilio. Coefficients ± standard errors; t = t-value; z = z-value; p = significance value 0.05, values under 0.1 given in brackets; effect: + = increasing effect, - = decreasing effect, compared to natural habitat; %DE = percentage of explained deviance; ♂ = male individuals.