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Table 2 Risk factors for the presence of Phlebotomus perniciosus in Majorca: Bivariate logistic regression model

From: Factors influencing the presence of sand flies in Majorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) with special reference to Phlebotomus pernicious, vector of Leishmania infantum

  Number of stations (111) Odds ratio (I.C. 95 %) p - Value
Altitude (m.a.s.l.)    0.063
0-50 28 Ref.  
51-150 60 3.133 (1.195 – 8.214) 0.020
>150 23 1.625 (0.522 – 5.055) 0.402
Settlement    
Within settlement 21 Ref.  
Edge of/between settlements 90 5.339 (1.950 – 14.617) 0.001
Type of roadway    0.228
Paved public road 46 Ref.  
Paved drive 41 2.903 (1.100 – 7.658) 0.031
Unpaved track 9 2.463 (0.460 – 13.182) 0.292
Garden (in rural village and other settlement) 5 2.815 (0.291 – 27.206) 0.371
Property (farm and other) 10 1.056 (0.262 – 4.258) 0.939
Site category    0.421
Embankment drainage holes 19 Ref.  
Wall drainage holes (not embankment) 26 2.111 (0.204 – 0.843) 0.031
Other holes in walls (not embankment) 47 0.308 (0.062 – 1.522) 0.148
Natural rock crevices 3 0.235 (0.014 – 3.917) 0.313
Farm buildings (holes) 13 0.264 (0.040 – 1.735) 0.166
Sewer/drainage openings 3 - 0.999
Aspect    0.26
Other (all orientations except south-east and west facing) 73 Ref.  
South-east facing 15 2.990 (0.623 – 14.350) 0.171
West facing 23 0.716 (0.271 – 1.892) 0.500
Slope    0.843
None 79 Ref.  
Shallow (<10 %) 30 1.018 (0.407 – 2.546) 0.969
Steep (>10 %) 2 0.436 (0.026 – 7.270) 0.563
Shelter    0.776
Not sheltered 93 Ref.  
Sheltered 17 1.548 (0.465 – 5.149) 0.476
Unsure 1 - 1,000
Water course    
None 105 Ref.  
Natural 6 0.419 (0.080 – 2.191) 0.303
Wall construction    0.013
Stone without mortar 48 Ref.  
Stone/mortar 16 0.338 (0.101 – 1.133) 0.079
Brick/mortar 30 0.263 (0.097 – 0.714) 0.009
Other 17 1.974 (0.386 – 10.089) 0,414
Drain hole construction    
Plastic pipe 35 Ref.  
Other (unlined, cement pipe) 76 2.250 (0.964 – 5.249 0.061
Hole interior    0.961
Bare 33 Ref.  
Dusty (bare) 68 0.784 (0.313 – 1.966) 0.604
Dusty (with vegetation) 3 0.750 (0.060 – 9.319) 0.823
Soil (with vegetation) 7 0.938 (0.153 – 5.728) 0.944
Vegetation on the wall    
No 86 Ref.  
Yes 25 1.529 (0.550 – 4.251 0.416
General environment    0.02
Rural village 48 Ref.  
Rural agriculture and forestry 45 2.977 (1.095 – 8.091) 0.032
Coastal village 8 0.548 (0.122 – 2.475) 0.435
Other settlement (non rural or non coastal village) 10 0.366 (0.090 – 1.478) 0.158
General vegetation (100 m – 1Km)    0.178
Aleppo pine 51 Ref.  
Evergreen oaks 3 0.273 (0.023 – 3.219) 0.302
Garrigue shrubs 38 2.416 (0.888 – 6.575) 0.084
None 19 0.935 (0.313 – 2.795) 0.904
Adjacent flora    0.02
Aleppo pine and evergreen oaks 30 Ref.  
Garrigue shrubs 40 14.529 (2.949 – 71.587) 0.001
None 41 0.885 (0.343 – 2.284) 0.801
Land cover (Corine)    0.006
Urban area 33 Ref.  
Agricultural area 62 5.525 (2.113 – 14.448) <0.001
Forest area 15 1.594 (0.462 – 5.497) 0.461
Humid area 1 - 1.000
Arable    0.107
Cereals 35 Ref.  
Root crop 2 0.167 (0.009 – 3.118) 0.231
Other (non cereal or root crop) 6 0.333 (0.048 – 2.328) 0.268
None 68 0.269 (0.093 – 0.781) 0.016
Garden    0.385
Grass, shrubs and trees 36 Ref.  
Paved hard surface 8 1.333 (0.276 – 6.442) 0.720
Orchard 56 2.187 (0.903 – 5.294) 0.083
None 11 - 0.999
Bioclimatic    
Meso-Mediterranean 63 Ref.  
Thermo-Mediterranean 48 1.130 (0.499 – 2.559) 0.770
Demographic data    
Humans    
≥ 688,5 106 Ref.  
≤ 688,4 5 0.276 (0.044-1.731) 0.169
Canine    
≤ 1989 56 Ref.  
≥ 1990 55 0.693 (0.308-1.561) 0.376
Animals seen**    
Dogs    
Yes 56 0.583 (0.258 – 1.321) 0.196
Cats    
Yes 9 1.600 (0.315 – 8.135) 0.571
Pet animals (dogs and cats)    
Yes 56 0.615 (0.272 – 1.391) 0.243
Equine    
Yes 7 2.789 (0.323 – 24.107) 0.351
Cattle    
Yes 2 0.434 (0.026 – 7.153) 0.560
Goat    
Yes 3 0.880 (0.077 – 10.047) 0.918
Sheep    
Yes 23 1.769 (0.597 – 5.242) 0.303
Pig    
Yes 1 - 1.000
Farm animals seen    
Yes 32 1.472 (0.582 – 3.721) 0.414
Rabbit    
Yes 2 - 0.999
Chicken    
Yes 13 2.667 (0.558 – 12.750) 0.219
Duck    
Yes 2 - 0.999
Pigeon    
Yes 5 0.649 (0.103 – 4.070) 0.644
Pen animals seen (Chicken, duck and pigeon)    
Yes 17 1.523 (0.458 – 3.066) 0.492
Livestock farms near***    
Horse    
Yes 44 0.540 (0.238 – 1.225) 0.140
Sheep    
Yes 58 2.720 (1.177 – 6.289) 0.019
Goat    
Yes 9 1.600 (0.315 – 8.135) 0.571
Pigs    
Yes 34 1.087 (0.450 – 2.624) 0.853
Rabbit    
Yes 7 0.304 (0.064 – 1.441) 0.134
Bovine    
Yes 4 0.427 (0.058 – 3.163) 0.405
Chicken    
Yes 23 0.786 (0.297 – 2.080) 0.628
Turkey    
Yes 4 0.136 (0.014 – 1.358) 0.089
Pigeon    
Yes 7 0.155 (0.028 – 0.842) 0.031
Pheasant    
Yes 1 - 1
Quail    
Yes 1 - 1
Partridge    
Yes 1 - 1
Bees    
Yes 5 0.099 (0.011 – 0.919) 0.042
Meteorological variables (continuous)*    
Wind period 1 3.1 – 17.1 0.937 (0.856 – 1.025) 0.157
Wind period 2 3.1 – 15 0.952 (0.854 – 1.062) 0.381
Humidity period 1 55.5 – 86.4 0.956 (0.907 – 1.008) 0.099
Humidity period 2 74.7 – 96.7 0.952 (0.881 – 1.028) 0.207
Rainfall period 1 0 – 42 0.954 (0.897 – 1.013) 0.126
Rainfall period 2 0 – 511 1.000 (0.996 -1.004) 0.936
Temperature period 1 19.6 – 27.5 0.911 (0.722 – 1.149) 0.432
Temperature period 2 19.8 – 26.2 0.974 (0.756 – 1.253) 0.835
Wintry temperature -2.6 – 5.3 1.068 (0.857 – 1.331) 0.560
  1. Dependent variable presence/absence of P. perniciosus. Ref. Reference category. C. I. = Confidence interval. Period 1: sampling day 1(traps set) today 4 (traps recovered). Period 2: the month before sampling day 1. *N is substituted by minimum and maximum values. **Reference category Animals seen: No. ***Reference category Livestock farms near: No.