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Table 2 Kdr and ace-1 genotype and mutation frequency in Anopheles sinensis mosquitoes from Hainan Island, China

From: Insecticide resistance of Anopheles sinensis and An. vagus in Hainan Island, a malaria-endemic area of China

Insecticide Population Bioassay* N Kdr genotype L1014F frequency P Ace-1 genotype G119S frequency P
     TTG/TTG TTG/TTT (%)   GGC/GGC GGC/AGC AGC/AGC (%)  
0.05% Deltamethrin Sanya Resistant 20 17 3 7.5 0.041 0 11 9 72.5 1.000
   Susceptible 47 47 0 0   1 26 20 70.2  
  Baoting Resistant 15 13 2 6.7 0.090 2 7 6 63.3 0.435
   Susceptible 48 48 0 0   10 21 17 57.3  
4% DDT Sanya Resistant 21 17 4 9.5 0.027 0 13 8 69.0 1.000
   Susceptible 38 38 0 0   1 20 17 71.1  
  Baoting Resistant 32 27 5 7.8 0.024 7 9 16 64.1 0.238
   Susceptible 46 46 0 0   13 17 16 53.3  
  1. *“Resistant” refers to the mosquitoes that were alive 24 hours after 60-min exposure to the insecticides in the standard WHO tube bioassay; and “susceptible” refers to the mosquitoes that were knocked down within the 24-hr recovery period. Significant p-values (p < 0.05) are given in bold type.