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Table 4 Synthesis of remote sensing contribution for schistosomiasis risk profiling

From: Risk profiling of schistosomiasis using remote sensing: approaches, challenges and outlook

  Factor impacting on disease transmission Remote sensing (proxy) variable Ecological impact
Parasite Water body Near and middle infrared reflectance Hatching of eggs; infection of snail and human host
Water temperature Thermal infrared (emissivity) Length of prepatent period; activity, survival and infection rate
Water flow velocity Topography: slope angle, curvature Determination of maximal cercarial density; passive transport of parasite
Predators NA Reduction of parasite population
Sunlight Shaded habitats (tree coverage) Reduction of parasite population
Pathogenicity NA Severity of disease in humans
Species NA Different efficiency of snail infection
Snail Water body Near and middle infrared reflectance Fundamental habitat of snail to maintain a population
Water temperature Thermal infrared (emissivity) Fecundity, mortality and rate of reproduction
Water flow velocity Topography: slope angle, curvature Determination of snail density; passive transport of snail; food availability
Vegetation Visible and near infrared reflectance Food supply; surface for oviposition; increase of dissolved oxygen
Substratum NA Abundance of snails in water body
Water depth Visible and near infrared reflectance Abundance of snails in water body
Stability of water level Temporal dynamic of water body Abundance of snails in water body
Rainfall Cloud thickness and temperature Creation of temporary snail habitats; modification of water flow velocity; supports contamination of water
Turbidity Visible and near infrared reflectance Reproduction cycle of snails
Water chemistry/quality NA Abundance of snails in water body
Sunlight Shaded habitats (tree coverage) Abundance and activity of snails
Predators, parasites and pathogens NA Reduction of snail population
Species NA Susceptibility to parasite and cercarial productivity
Human Water contact behaviour NA Exposure to parasite infested water; contamination of surface waters
Gender NA Determinant of water contact activities (culturally variable)
Age NA Related to degree of exposure and level of immunity
Immunity NA Resistance to reinfection can be developed following previous infections
Ethnic origin NA Susceptibility to infection
Religion NA Religious practices may affect patterns of water use
Socioeconomic status NA Standard of hygiene; access to protected water supply; ability to cope with disease
Migration NA Modification of spatial distribution of disease
Occupation NA Work related to water increases exposure
Location of the house Settlement mapping Exposure of population to potential disease transmission sites
Prevention/control measures NA Modification of spatial pattern of disease transmission