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Table 1 Major tick-borne diseases (TBDs) of bovines: principal pathogens, principal hosts, principal vectors, and distribution. Current status of the main bovine TBDs and potential vectors in Pakistan are also provided.

From: Tick-borne diseases of bovines in Pakistan: major scope for future research and improved control

Tick-borne disease (TBDs) Principal pathogens Principal host (s) Principal ticks vectors Distribution Bovine TBDs reported from Pakistan Possible tick vectors in Pakistan
Theileriosis Theileria annulata Cattle, Asian buffalo Hyalomma detritum detritum Southern Europe, North Africa, Middle East, Sudan, central Asia, and Indian subcontinent, Yes H. anatolicum anatolicum,
H. anatolicum
H. dromedarii H. dromedarii,
H. lusitanicum
H. marginatum marginatum
  T. parva Cattle, African buffalo Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, R. zambeziensis Eastern, central and southern parts of Africa No Not applicable (NA)
  T. orientalis Cattle, Asian buffalo Haemaphysalis longicornis Cosmopolitan No NA
  T. mutans Cattle, African buffalo Amblyomma spp. Sub-Saharan Africa No NA
  T. velifera Cattle, African buffalo Amblyomma spp. Sub-Saharan Africa No NA
  T. taurotragi Cattle, Eland antelope R. appendiculatus East and southern Africa No NA
Babesiosis Babesia bigemina Cattle, buffalo R. (B.) microplus Tropical and subtropical regions Yes R. (B.) microplus
  B. bovis Cattle, buffalo R. (B.) microplus Tropical and subtropical regions Yes R. (B.) microplus
  B. divergens Cattle Ixodes ricinus Europe and North Africa No NA
  B. orientalis Buffalo Rhipicephalus spp. Asia No NA
Anaplasmosis Anaplasma marginale Cattle, domestic buffalo Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, R. (B.) decoloratus, R. (B.) annulatus, R. bursa, R. simus, R. evertsi Tropical, subtropical and even temperate regions Yes R. (B.) microplus
Hyalomma spp.
  A. centrale Cattle As above Tropical and subtropical regions Yes As above
  A. (Ehrlichia) bovis Cattle, domestic buffalo Amblyomma spp., Hyalomma spp., Rhipicephalus spp. Africa, Asia, and South America No NA
  A. (Ehrlichia) phagocytophilum a Cattle, small ruminants, horses Ixodes spp. Europe and North America No NA
  1. aZoonotic importance; Source: [7, 10, 18, 20, 29, 31]