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Table 4 List of key studies of bovine Anaplasma/anaplasmosis in Pakistan

From: Tick-borne diseases of bovines in Pakistan: major scope for future research and improved control

Pathogen (s) detected Host (s) Location (s) Study population and sampling design Sampling period Detection method (s) Percentage of test positive animals (proportion) Reference
Cattle Buffaloes
Anaplasma marginale Buffaloes, cattle (local breeds) Karachi Animals slaughtered in abattoir; convenient Nov 1984 to Dec 1985 Blood smear 60 (30/50) 60 (60/100) [8]
A. marginale Buffaloes, cattle (local breeds) Hyderabad Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; convenient Oct 1990 to Dec 1991 Blood smear 1 Am: 11 (11/100) Am: 19 (19/100) [40]
A. centrale 2 Ac: 7 (7/100) Ac: 11 (11/100)
A. marginale Buffaloes, cattle (local and exotic breeds) Attock, Islamabad Healthy animals from public livestock farms; convenient Sep 1999 to May 2001 Blood smear 17.3 (53/307) 12.9 (20/155) [41]
A. marginale Cattle (local breeds) Peshawar Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; convenient 2001 Blood smear Am: 4.2 (12/285) Not applicable (NA) [42]
A. centrale Ac: 3.86 (11/285)
3Mixed: 4.21 (12/285)
A. marginale Buffaloes, cattle (local breeds) Hyderabad Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; convenient Feb to Apr 2004 Blood smear Am: 22 (55/250) Am: 13.6 (34/250) [58]
A. centrale Ac: 9.2 (23/250) Ac: 8.4 (21/250)
Mixed: 20.8 (52/250) Mixed: 8 (20/250)
A. marginale Buffaloes, cattle Different districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; convenient Jun to Jul 2003 Blood smear 15.1 (8/53) 26.1 (17/65) [59]
A. marginale Cattle (local and exotic breeds) Sargodha Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; multi-stage cluster random Aug 2008 to Jul 2009 Blood smear 9.7 (34/350) N/A [47]
4Mixed: 3.1 (11/350)
A. marginale Cattle (local and exotic breeds) Khushab, Rawalpindi, Sargodha Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; convenient Sep 2009 to Aug 2010 Blood smear 5.8 (61/1050) N/A [48]
A. marginale Buffaloes Karachi Healthy animals from the Landhi Dairy Colony; convenient Apr to Oct 2011 Blood smear N/A 9 (9/100) [46]
Anaplasma sp. Buffaloes Bahawalnagar, Burewala, Kohat, Layyah, Multan, Peshawar Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; random May to Sep 2001 5PCR-RFLP NA Anaplasma sp. [57]
A. marginale 41 (115/281)
Am: 17 (20/155)
A. marginale Cattle (local and exotic breeds) Khushab, Rawalpindi, Sargodha Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; convenient Sep 2009 to Aug 2010 Serology - 6ELISA - N/A [60]
Anaplasma sp. Buffaloes, cattle (local and exotic breeds) Khanewal Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; simple random May 2011 to April 2012 Blood smear 4.1 (34/836) 4.29 (30/700) [56]
  1. 1 Anaplasma marginale; 2 Anaplasma centrale; 3Mixed infection of A. marginale and A. centrale; 4Mixed infection of A. marginale with either T. annulata or B. bigemina; 5Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism; 6Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; − denotes lack of information