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Table 3 Pooled estimates of T. gondii in humans by potential risk factors

From: A meta-analysis of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in animals and humans in Ethiopia

Risk factors   p (95 % CI) Z-p Q/df Q-p I2 X 2 Y-p OR (95 % CI)
  Overall 74.73 (61.85,84.36) 0.000 70.4 0.000 98.6    
Sex Male 73.54 (41.95, 91.44) 0.137 51.1 0.000 98 37.17 0.000 1.65 (1.40,1..95)
  Female 62.74 (40.08,80.91) 0.269 69.4 0.000 98.6    
Age Adults 69.87 (47.50,85.59) 0.080 80.2 0.000 98.8 51.06 0.000 1.95 (1.62,2.36)
  Children 54.34 (24.81,81.11) 0.790 54.8 0.000 98.2    
Pregnancy Pregnant 62.55 (29.88, 86.74) 0.462 56.8 0.000 98.2 152.83 0.000 3.96 (3.15,4.97)
  Non-pregnant 29.59 (0.75, 95.87) 0.672 197.8 0.000 99.5    
Cat Contact 85.96 (74.12, 92.90) 0.000 13.6 0.000 92.6 64.10 0.000 2.53 (2.00,3.20)
  No contact 70.70 (53.74, 83.37) 0.018 27.4 0.000 96.4    
Residence Urban 82.58 (73.63, 88.93) 0.000 2.7 0.000 96.3 64.04 0.000 2.06 (1.71,2.47)
  Rural 69.80 (52.40, 82.91) 0.027 19.8 0.000 94.9    
Meat Raw Ca 77.22 (63.85, 86.68) 0.000 18.3 0.000 94.5 0.65 0.421 1.10 (0.88,1.36)
  Raw NCb 75.58 (51.22.90.11) 0.040 36.0 0.000 97.2    
Vegetable Raw Ca 75.44 (53.00, 89.33) 0.028 31.8 0.000 96.9 1.45 0.229 1.19 (0.90,1.56)
  Raw NCb 72.23 (35.92, 92.34) 0.222 36.6 0.000 97.3    
Water Non pipe 86.65 (82.17, 90.13) 0.000 0.54 0.585 0 1.36 0.243 1.30 (0.85,2.00)
  Pipe 83.45 (76.73, 88.52) 0.000 6.4 0.000 84.2    
HIV Positive 81.06 (50.07, 94.81) 0.05 77.7 0.000 98.7 0.26 0.609 1.06 (0.87,1.29)
  Negative 80.17 (72.47, 86.13) 0.000 6.7 0.000 85.0    
  1. I2, inverse variance index; OR, odds ratio; Q, Cochran’s X 2; Y-p, probability of Yates test; Z-p probability of Z test
  2. aConsumers
  3. bNon-consumers