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Fig. 5 | Parasites & Vectors

Fig. 5

From: Anopheles stephensi p38 MAPK signaling regulates innate immunity and bioenergetics during Plasmodium falciparum infection

Fig. 5

Inhibition of AsP38 MAPK altered antimicrobial peptide promoter activity in response to LPS or PGN stimulation in immortalized A. stephensi cells. ASE cells were transfected with an antimicrobial peptide luciferase promoter-reporter plasmid construct and stimulated 24 h later with 100 μg/ml LPS or 2 μg/ml PGN with 0.1 -10 μM BIRB796 or an equivalent volume of DMSO as a control. Graphs represent means ± SEMs of luciferase activity (relative light units, RLU) normalized to untreated controls, n = 3-7. Cecropin1 (top, white) or Gambicin (middle, gray), or Defensin1 (bottom, black) promoter activities are indicated. Data were analysed by Student’s t-test and significant p-values are shown. NS = not significant

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