Approach | Method | Required parametric assumptions | Inference |
---|---|---|---|

Model-free | Sample statistics | • None | • Population average estimates |

Model-based | Marginal models |
• Variance to mean relationship • Correlation structure among repeated measures |
• Population average estimates • Covariate effects |

Conditional mixed models |
• Conditional distribution of data • Distribution of random effects |
• Individual estimates • Covariate effects | |

Bayesian conditional mixed models |
• Conditional distribution of data • Distribution of random effects • Prior distribution of parameters |
• Individual estimates • Covariate effects • Fully integrated parameter uncertainty |