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Table 1 Categories of risk factors for bovine cysticercosis represented in Fig. 5

From: Epidemiology, impact and control of bovine cysticercosis in Europe: a systematic review

Abbreviation Risk factor Subcategories included
AP Access to pastures Grazing - organic
Grazing - conventional (i.e. non-organic)
Grazing next to streams with single outlets (without direct access to water)
Grazing next to streams with sewage effluent (without direct access to water)
ARW Access to risky water sources Free access to surface water (rivers, lakes, canals)
Proximity of wastewater effluent (<200 m)
Access to risky water with sewage treatment plant effluent in proximitya
Access to risky water with no sewage treatment plant effluent in proximitya
Drinking from streams with sewage outlets from single households
Flooding of pastures
CF Access to contaminated feed Feeding of freshly harvested grass on stable to dairy cows
Purchased roughage
Sewage sludge spread on own land
Dairy Dairy animals Dairy as production type
Female Being female Being female
Organic Organic farming Organic farming
SM/C Sharing machinery or hiring contractors Use of machinery (that had been used for emptying septic tanks) for spreading liquid animal manure
Sharing machinery or hiring contractors
Spreading of liquid manure (with machinery that had been used for emptying septic tanks) partially done by contractors
Defecation Proximity to uncontrolled human defecation Car park in the proximity of grazing areas
Leisure activities in the proximity of grazing areas
Railway line in the proximity of grazing areas
Distance to camping site ≤ 100 m
Visits Having visitors on farm Having visitors on farm
  1. aRisky water sources could be streams, lakes or ponds