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Table 1 Anopheles species by laboratory strain and insecticide susceptibility profile fed on powdered formulations of either Piper nigrum (black pepper) or piperine at the larval stage

From: The larvicidal effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and piperine against insecticide resistant and susceptible strains of Anopheles malaria vector mosquitoes

Species Strain (Country of origin) Resistance profile/additional information Resistance mechanisms
Anopheles arabiensis KGB (Zimbabwe) Insecticide susceptible N/A
SENN (Sudan) Mostly susceptible. Low-level resistance to permethrin N/A [27]
SENN-DDT (Sudan) Selected for resistance to DDT from SENN base colony. Also resistant to permethrin, deltamethrin and malathion [27, 28] Elevated cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and general esterase activity [27, 28]
Anopheles coluzzii SILCa (Sierra Leone) Resistant to pyrethroids and DDT aNo data
SUA (Liberia) Insecticide susceptible N/A
Anopheles gambiae GAH (Ghana) Resistant to pyrethroids, DDT, carbamates and organophosphates [29] Monooxygenase and esterase mediated detoxification coupled with the L1014F kdr mutation are implicated in pyrethroid resistance. An assortment of L1014F kdr is also implacted in DDT resistance. Mutations of the Alanine296-glycine (Rdl) GABA receptor and acetylcholinesterase receptor (ace-1 R) are associated with dieldrin and bediocarb resistance respectively [29].
TONGSa (Cote d’Ivoire) Resistant to pyrethroids, DDT, carbamates and organophosphates aNo data
Anopheles quadriannulatus SANGWE (Zimbabwe) Insecticide susceptible. Anopheles quadriannulatus is zoophilic and not considered to be a vector species. N/A
Anopheles funestus FANG (Angola) Insecticide susceptible N/A
FUMOZ-R (Mozambique) Resistant to pyrethroids and carbamates [30] Overexpression of the cytochrome P450 CYP6P9 [30]. Thickened cuticles also contribute to adult insecticide-resistance [31].
  1. aSILC was used for black pepper bioassays but not for piperine bioassays as the insecticide resistance levels in the strain had significantly dropped during the period between the conducting of the two bioassays and it would not have been an accurate proxy by which to compare insecticide susceptible and resistant strains. SILC was replaced with the An. gambiae strain TONGS for the piperine bioassays