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Table 3 Primary clinical manifestations and prognosis for dogs infected with the different species of Babesia found in Europe [4]

From: A review of canine babesiosis: the European perspective

  B. canis B. vogeli B. gibsoni B. microti-like sp.
History and features Young dogs, adult dogs, hunting dogs/sheepdogs (German Shepherd and Komondor) that live outdoors. A greater number of cases is seen in autumn, and spring Puppies or adult/older dogs with concomitant infectious or non-infectious diseases Common in fighting dogs (Pit Bull Terrier and Tosa) Young, adult dogs, guard/hunting dogs that live outdoors
Severity of disease Moderate to severe Mild to moderate Moderate to severe Moderate to severe
Clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities that differ among Babesia spp. Petechiae, epistaxis, vomiting, lymphadenomegaly, hypotension, low T3 syndrome, mild to moderate nonregenerative, normochromic, and normocytic anaemia, regenerative anaemia (less common), leukopenia with neutropenia and/or lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia, elevation of liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP), hypokalemia, hyponatremia, and hyperchloremia, hyperlactatemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypoglycemia, prerenal and renal azotemia Regenerative immune-mediated hemolytic anaemia, nonregenerative anaemia, leukocytosis and leukopenia Lymph node enlargement, enlargement of the spleen, small-bowel diarrhea, weight loss, protein-losing nephropathy, PU/PD, and abdominal effusion. Mild to severe regenerative immune-mediated hemolytic anaemia, neutropenia and leukocytosis. Hypoalbuminemia, azotemia and elevation of liver enzymes (ALT, ALP) Azotemia, proteinuria, cylindruria and hyperglobulinemia
Course of infection related to disease manifestation Acute Acute and chronic Acute and chronic Acute and chronic?
Prognosis Good to poor Good Guarded to poor Guarded to poor
Reference [84, 89, 106, 131, 162167] [84, 106, 162] [48, 102, 132, 168171] [16, 35, 86, 172]
  1. Common clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities among Babesia spp.: Fever, lethargy, anorexia, pale mucous membranes, weakness, bounding pulse, jaundice, pigmenturia, mild to severe thrombocytopenia, mild to severe regenerative anaemia due to hemolysis, bilirubinemia, bilirubinuria, and haemoglobinuria