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Table 7 Grouping of countries according to Echinococcus multilocularis prevalence in red foxes in relation to definitive (DH) and intermediate (IH) hosts

From: The geographical distribution and prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in animals in the European Union and adjacent countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Level of prevalence in red foxes (%) Country DHs Pooled prevalence (%) IHs Pooled prevalence (%)
0 (0) Finland Raccoon dog 0 Arvicolids 0
Dog 0a   
Wild canids (Wolf) 0 Swine 0
Ireland No data No data No data No data
United Kingdom Dog 0a No data No data
Cat 0a
0< >1 (low) Denmark Cat 0.60a No data No data
Dog 0a
Raccoon dog 0
Wild canids (Wolf) 0a
Sweden Raccoon dog 0a Swine 0a
Dog 0a
Wild canids (Wolf) 0a
Slovenia No data No data No data No data
1< >10 (medium) Austria Dog 0a No data No data
Cat 0a
Belgium No data No data Muskrat 16.00
Insectivores 0a
Arvicolids 0.20
    Murids 0a
Croatia No data No data No data No data
Hungary Wild canids (Golden jackal) 4.70 No data No data
Italy Dog 0 No data No data
Cat 0a
Netherlands Cat 0.30a Muskrat 0.06a
Dog 0a
Raccoon dog 0a
Norway (5.82 %) b (only Svalbard archipelago) No data No data Arvicolids 27.50
Swine 0a
Romania No data No data Arvicolids 1.40a
Swine 0a
Ukraine Wild canids (Wolf) 0a No data No data
Raccoon dog 0a
>10 (high) Poland Raccoon dog 10.40 Insectivores 0
Dog 0 Arvicolids 0
Cat 0 Murids 0
Switzerland Dog 1.20 Arvicolids 13.30
Cat 4.60 Murids 0
Swine 10a
Czech Republic Dog 1.80a Insectivores 0
Cat 50.00 Arvicolids 1.30
   Murids 0
Germany Dog 0.30 Muskrat 3.80
Nutria 0.40a
Cat 0.60 Arvicolids 0.60
Raccoon dog 2.50 Murids 0
Swine 5.30a
Estonia Raccoon dog 1.60a No data No data
France Dog 0.40 Muskrat 1.10
Nutria 5.80a
Cat 1.50 Insectivores 0a
Arvicolids 4.80
Murids 0.97
Liechtenstein No data No data No data No data
Lithuania Dog 0.80a Swine 0.40a
Raccoon dog 8.20a
Latvia Raccoon dog 21.00a No data No data
Wild canids (Wolf) 5.90a
Slovakia Dog 0.40 No data No data
Cat 0
Raccoon dog 28.00
Wild canids (Wolf) 0a
No data Luxembourg Dog 0a Muskrat 1.80a
Cat 0a
  1. aPrevalence estimate from only one study, not pooled prevalence
  2. bArctic foxes sampled