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Table 4 Predictors of infection with STH overall, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm, across pilot study sentinel sites in Burundi from 2007 to 2011 combined with prevalence data obtained by a mapping survey in 2014 from the same schools. Results shown are from binomial mixed models. Age was standardised (mean centred and divided by the estimated standard deviation)

From: The impact of an 8-year mass drug administration programme on prevalence, intensity and co-infections of soil-transmitted helminthiases in Burundi

  Pooled STH Ascaris lumbricoides Hookworm
n = 22,341 observations
pseudo-R 2 MF = 0.057; R 2 marg. = 0.037; R 2 cond. = 0.21
n = 22,347 observations
pseudo-R 2 MF = 0.17; R 2 marg. = 0.028; R 2 cond. = 0.40
n = 22,351 observations
pseudo-R 2 MF = 0.13; R 2 marg. = 0.079; R 2 cond. = 0.48
Fixed effects Category Parameter
(SE)
Adjusted odds ratio
(95 % CI)
P Parameter
(SE)
Adjusted odds ratio
(95 % CI)
P Parameter
(SE)
Adjusted odds ratio
(95 % CI)
P
(Intercept)   -0.90 (0.17) 0.41 (0.29–0.56) *** -2.5 (0.36) 0.08 (0.04–0.17) *** -2.20 (0.44) 0.11 (0.05–0.26) ***
Year 2008 -0.90 (0.26) 0.4 (0.24–0.67) *** -1.05 (0.4) 0.35 (0.16–0.76) ** -1.29 (0.28) 0.28 (0.16–0.47) ***
  2009 -0.43 (0.23) 0.65 (0.41–1.01) ns -0.24 (0.45) 0.79 (0.33–1.89) ns -0.87 (0.35) 0.42 (0.21–0.82) *
  2010 -0.90 (0.20) 0.41 (0.27–0.61) *** -0.84 (0.26) 0.43 (0.26–0.72) ** -1.36 (0.34) 0.26 (0.13–0.5) ***
  2011 -1.14 (0.23) 0.32 (0.2–0.5) *** -0.48 (0.2) 0.62 (0.41–0.92) * -2.26 (0.38) 0.10 (0.05–0.22) ***
  2014 -0.85 (0.25) 0.43 (0.26–0.71) *** 0.05 (0.31) 1.05 (0.57–1.93) ns -1.48 (0.5) 0.23 (0.09–0.6) **
Age   -0.07 (0.019) 0.94 (0.9–0.97) *** -0.12 (0.025) 0.89 (0.85–0.93) *** 0.02 (0.028) 1.02 (0.97–1.08) ns
Age^2   -0.01 (0.017) 0.99 (0.95–1.02) ns -0.03 (0.023) 0.97 (0.93–1.01) ns -0.02 (0.025) 0.98 (0.94–1.03) ns
Sex (male)   0.09 (0.037) 1.09 (1.01–1.17) * 0.08 (0.048) 1.08 (0.98–1.19) ns 0.09 (0.053) 1.09 (0.98–1.21) ns
Random Effects   Variance SD   Variance SD   Variance SD  
Pupil (Intercept)   0.43 0.66 *** 0.56 0.75 *** 0.33 0.57 ***
School (Intercept)   0.31 0.55   1.50 1.23   2.20 1.50  
Year 2008   0.76 0.87   1.60 1.25   0.63 0.79  
Year 2009   0.59 0.77   2.20 1.48   1.3 1.14  
Year 2010   0.46 0.68   0.66 0.81   1.2 1.10  
Year 2011   0.59 0.77   0.36 0.60   1.1 1.05  
Year 2014   0.60 0.78   0.84 0.92   1.8 1.35  
Random Slope year     ***    ***    ***
  1. Abbreviations: ns not significant (P > 0.05); SD standard deviation; SE standard error
  2. *P ≤ 0.05; **P ≤ 0.01; ***P ≤ 0.001