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Table 2 Recent data on Schistosoma japonicum vaccine candidates

From: Schistosomiasis vaccines: where do we stand?

Antigen Location in adult worm Identity/Function Immunization strategy Adjuvant Host Worm burden reduction (%) Liver egg burden reduction (%) Reference
Paramyosin (sj97) Schistosomulum surface, tegument and acetabular glands Binds complement and Fc region of IgG; proposed role in host immune evasion Recombinant proteins Alum or TiterMax Pig 33–34 [108]
Sj26GST Parenchymal region of male worm and in the parenchymal cells between the vitelline glands in the female worm Catalyses detoxification of lipophilic molecules by thioconjugation DNA vaccine Mouse 30 45 [66, 69, 109]
26-kDaGST + IL-18 DNA vaccine Mouse 49 51  
SjGP-3 (Sj26GST + PmyF3 (fragment of paramyosin)) Polyvalent subunit CFA Mouse 41–38 26–29
rPRV/Sj26-KDaGST+ SjFABP Recombinant pseudorabies virus Mouse 39 45
Sheep 48 51
Triose phosphate isomerise (SjTPI) Glycolytic pathway enzyme       [7174]
 - with codon optimiized version    DNA vaccine Mouse 50 57
 - with SjTPI + heat-shock protein 70    DNA vaccine Water buffalo 52 61
 - with recombinant replication-defective adenoviral vectors    Replication defective adenoviral vector-based Mouse 54 52
 - with prime-boost strategy    Adenoviral vectored prime and recombinant protein boost Complete Freunds and Incomplete Freunds Mouse 72 72
Thyroid hormone receptor beta (SjTHRβ) Interacts with thyroid hormone to modulate growth, development and differentiation, and metabolic processes Recombinant protein Montanide ISA 206 Mouse 27 29 [110]
S. japonicum fatty acid binding protein (SjFABP) Whole body, cytosolic Uptake, transports and compartmentalizes the fatty acids of the host DNA vaccine     [80, 81]
 - with IL-18      Mouse 38 45  
 - with Sj26GST      Mouse 32 25
Twenty-three kilo dalton integral membrane protein (Sj23) with different adjuvants Surface-exposed Facilitates parasite immune regulation Recombinant protein Freunds Mouse 59 [83]
ISA206 Mouse 26
ISA70M Mouse 54
Tetravalent DNA vaccine (SjFABP. Sj23/Sj26.SjGAPDH) DNA vaccine Mouse 71 61 [84]
Cocktail DNA with EP and protein vaccines (Sj23+ SjCTPI+ CDR3) DNA vaccine boosted with recombinant protein Complete Freunds Mouse 59 67 [85]
Protein disulfide (SjPDI) isomerase Tegument as well as other specialized excretory/secretory (ES)organs Enzyme involved in disulfide bond formation and rearrangement and it interfere with the host immune Recombinant protein Montanide ISA 206 VG Mouse 38 33 [111]
S. japonicum inhibitor apoptosis protein using adenovirus as live vaccine vector (Ad-SjIAP)   Involved in differentiation and development With recombinant adenoviral vector Mouse 38 32 [112]
Aldose reductase (SjAR) Gynecophoral canal of adult male worms Involved in antioxidant defence system Recombinant protein Freunds Mouse 33 28 [113]
S. japonicum Sj-F1 (using S. gordonii as live vector) (Sj-F1) Gene discovered when adult S. japonicum worm cDNA library was screened with by serum prepared against female S. japonicum antigens Unknown With S. gordonii as live vector Mouse 21 35 [114]